Mechanisms and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal Injuries Test

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Types of Tissue Properties

Load, Stiffness, Stress, Strain

Load

An external force acting on the body causing internal reactions within the tissues

Stiffness

Ability of a tissue to resist an external force

Stress

Internal Resistance to a Load

Strain

Internal change in tissue (i.e. length) resulting in deformation

Types of Tissue Loading

Tension, Compression, Shearing, Bending, Torsion

Tension

a force that pulls and stretches tissue

compression

Force that results in tissue crush - two forces applied towards one another

Shearing

Force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue

Bending

Two force pairs act at opposite ends of a structure

Torsion

Loads caused by twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends

Types of Muscles

Cardiac, Smooth, Striated

Muscle Strain

Stretch, tear or rip to muscle or adjacent tissue

Grade I Muscle Strain

some fibers have been stretched or actually torn resulting in tenderness and pain on active ROM, movement painful but full range present

Grade II Muscle Strain

number of fibers have been torn and active contraction is painful, usually a depression or divot is palpable, some swelling and discoloration result

Grade III Muscle Strain

Complete rupture of muscle or musculotendinous junction, significant impairment, with initially a great deal of pain that diminishes due to nerve damage

Muscle Spasm

a reflex reaction cause by trauma

Clonic Muscle Spasm

alternating involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations in quick succession

Tonic Muscle Spasm

rigid contraction that lasts a period of time

Acute-Onset Muscle Soreness

accompanies fatigue, and is transient muscle pain experienced immediately after exercise

Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

pain that occurs 24-48 hours following activity that gradually subsides

Muscle Soreness

Overexertion in strenuous exercise resulting in muscular pain

Types of Synovial Joints

Gliding Joints, Hinge Joints, Pivot Joints, Condyloid Joints, Saddle Joint, Ball & Socket Joints

Gliding Joint

Allow only gliding or sliding ex. carpals of wrist, AC jnt

Hinge Joints

act as a door hinge, allows flexion & extension ex. elbow

Pivot Joints

one bone rotates about another ex. proximal radioulnar jnt & distal radioulnar jnt

Condyloid Joint

two bones fit together with an odd shape & one bone concave & the other convex. flexion, extension, abduction & adduction. ex. wrist

Saddle Joint

resemble a saddle, permit the same movements as condyloid jnts but with greater movement. ex Carpometacarpal

Ball & socket Joint

allow for all movements except gliding. ex shoulder(glenohumeral), hip

ligament sparin

Result of traumatic joint twist that causes stretching or tearing of connective tissue

Grade I Ligament Sprain

some pain, minimal loss of function, no abnormal motion, and mild point tenderness

Grade II Ligament Sprain

pain, moderate loss of function, swelling, and instability with tearing and separation of ligament fibers

Grade III Ligament Sprain

extremely painful, inevitable loss of function, severe instability and swelling, and may also represent subluxation

Bone Structure

Dense connective tissue matrix
Outer compact tissue
Inner porous cancellous bone including Haversian canals

Types of Bones

Flat bones, Irregular bones, short bones, long bones

flat bone

skull, ribs, scapulae

irregular bone

vertebrae and skull

short bones

wrist and ankle

long bones

humerus, ulna, tibia, radius, fibia, femur, bones most comonly injured

Closed Fracture

fracture where there is little movement or displacement

Open Fracture

Fracture where it involves displacement of the fractured ends and breaking through the surrounding tissue

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