UC Sociology 1001 - Exam 3

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#1-26: True/False #27-48: Multiple Choice (correct answer given only) #49-58: Extended Response (written outside of class)

Biologists and anthropologists generally agree on a five-member classification system to universally distinguish one race from another.

False.
p.240

The way in which race is determined is a universal cultural constant.

False.
p.241

Everyone who shares a respective ethnic identity expresses that identity through the same ethnic work.

True.
p.244

The term "melting pot" is the most appropriate analogy to classify Americans based on the fascination Americans have with their ethnic roots.

False.
p.245

Sociologists find psychological explanations of prejudice to be inadequate.

True.
p.245, 247-8

The split labor market and reserve labor force are most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective.

False. (Aligned with Conflict Theory)
p.251

Gender stratification refers to the unequal access to power, property, and prestige of males and females based on their sex.

True.
p.276

Sociologically, "gender" and "sex" are interchangeable terms that virtually have the same meaning.

False.
p.276

In hunting and gathering as well as horticultural societies, women contributed the majority of the food supply to their groups.

True.
p.282

In major theories on the origin of patriarchy point to the social consequences of human reproduction.

True.
p.282

The fact that women are twice as likely to die after coronary bypass surgery can be traced to unintentional sexual discrimination by medical personnel.

True.
p.288

The ratio of women who work for wages is evenly distributed throughout the United States.

False.
p.292-3

Because age is socially constructed, there is little unified agreement worldwide on the image and treatment of the elderly.

True.
p.300

The number of members in an age cohort determines the size of a "baby boom" or a "baby bust."

True.
p.304

Because of the high costs of Medicare and Social Security, programs that benefit children are underfunded.

True (uncertain).
p.308

A society that prohibits interracial marriage by law is enforcing endogamy.

True.
p.352

Functionalists note the incest taboo serves to avoid role confusion in families.

True.
p.355

Romantic love and its importance in marriage are a cultural universal.

False.
p.357

Sociologists use the term homogamy to refer to the tendency for people who share similar characteristics to marry one another.

True.
p.357

Among all family groups, Native Americans are the most likely to be permissive with their children and avoid physical punishment.

True.
p.364

The rate of divorce among remarried couples is much lower than the rate of divorce among first time marriages.

False.
p.374

Because of the high costs of Medicare and Social Security, programs that benefit children are underfunded.

True (uncertain).
p.308

Internet dating has become the most popular way to meet a prospective mate.

False (uncertain).
p.354

Sociologists use the term homogamy to refer to the tendency for people who share similar characteristics to marry one another.

True. (duplicate)
p.357

Middle-class parents are concerned that their children develop curiosity and self-expression.

True.
p.360

Research shows divorced fathers often have little contact with their children.

False.
p.374

What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group?

a race.
p.240

Ashley Montagu, a physical anthropologist, classified humans into ___ different racial groups.

40.
p.240

As described in the text, what are two myths of race?

one race is superior to another; pure races exist.
p.240

While race might reflect our biological heritage, ___ reflects our cultural heritage.

ethnicity.
p.242

Because so many Americans have become interested in their roots, which of the following food choices do some analysts use to illustrate the belief that American is a diverse nation?

a tossed salad.
p.245

What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?

positive prejudice.
p.???

Slavery and apartheid are both examples of the ways in which a country's dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?

internal colonialism.
p.254

What is the largest minority group in the United States today?

Latino American.
p.258

To understand the comparative conditions of Latinos, one must look at people's ___.

countries of origin.
p.260

Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?

It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life.
p.276

Past research appears to have supported the idea that men who have higher levels of testosterone tend to be more aggressive. What is an alternative explanation to the testosterone thesis to explain aggressive behavior in men?

the social class to which a man belongs.
p.279

Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?

There is not a single society known where women-as-a-group have decision-making power over men.
p.279

The first wave of the women's movement had a radical branch and a conservative branch. What was the goal of the radical branch of the movement?

reforming all the institutions of society.
p.287

When many students graduate from college, they are able to earn an extra $1,465 a month between the ages of 25 and 65. These students manage to earn this bonus by ___.

being born male.
p.292-3

Sociologically, what is a family?

two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption.
p.352

Frank, Jim, Martha, and Louise occupy the same apartment, sharing routine chores such as cooking, cleaning and laundry. Each contributes a share of their earnings to pay utilities and food costs. Sociologists would describe this group as a ___.

household.
p.352

In the United States and many other parts of the world, the common practice is for whites to marry whites, African Americans to marry African Americans, and members of specific social classes to marry within their class. This marital practice is called ___.

endogamy.
p.352

In some tribal societies it is highly encouraged for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring or rival tribe to build camaraderie and form an alliance. The pattern of marital behavior is called ___.

exogamy.
p.352

Bertha has just turned 16 and has caught the special interest of her father because she looks just as attractive and sexy as her mother did when they first dated. Bertha's mother has noticed this and now feels like a maid, not a wife and mother. What do sociologists call this condition of a father seeking his daughter as a possible sexua interest, and a wife feeling as though she is a maid, rather than a wife and mother?

role confusion.
p.355

Husbands remain primarily responsible for earning the income and wives are primarily responsilble for the house and children. This is an arrangement sociologists call ___?

the gendered division of labor.
p.???

Ivan is the son of working class parents. What is the most likely method his parents will use in his rearing?

They will use punishment to encourage outward conformity.
p.360

The term for children who return to live at home after college is ___.

adultolescents.
p.361

What is the dominant position in sociology as it relates to the relationship between sex and behavior? What proof can sociologists offer to support their position on this issue?

p.278

Briefly outline the thoughts of sociological theorists in explaining how women became a minority group.

p.282

What is gender stratification? Generally speaking, what are the consequences of gender stratification?

p.276

What does the research by Jeanette and Robert Launer indicate relative to the percent of married couples who are happily married?

p.376

Journalistic accounts often state that one out of every two marriages ends in divorce. Explain why this statement presents a distorted image of divorce in the United States. Provide an alternate statistic which presents a more accurate description of divorce in the US.

p.370

Discuss how marriage and family are viewed from the three sociological perspectives.

p.352?

List and discuss the three systems of descent society uses to trace kinship over generations.

p.353

According to anthropologists and biologists, how many distinct races exist among humans? what are the racial classifications discussed in the textbook? Why are the racial categories chosen by the author inadequate to provide a full picture of race?

p.240

Explain the difference between prejudice and discrimination. Is it possible to be prejudiced but not to discriminate? Or, to discriminate without being prejudiced?

p.245

Why does William Julius Wilson believe that class, and not race, is the determining characteristic for African Americans being accepted by the dominant culture?

p.263

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