Primary hypofunction of endocrine glands is defined as?
loss of secretory cells
Secondary hypofunction of endocrine glands is defined as?
loss of tropic hormone
Primary hyperfunction of endocrine glands is defined as?
proliferation of secretory cells
Secondary hyperfunction of endocrine glands is defined as?
excessive tropic hormone
TSH, ACTH, LH, FSH, and GH are all secretions of the _________. While oxytocin and vasopressin are secretions of the __________.
anterior pituitary; posterior pituitary
Pituitary cysts are most common in this breed of dog and must be __________.
german shepherd; lined by epithelium
What is caused by the failure of ectoderm in Rathke's pouch to fully differentiate into the adenohypophysis?
Pituitary cysts grow and compress the remaning ___________ causing little to no hormone production.
Reduced growth hormone is the most observed sequela of _______.
The most obvious gross clinical sign of pituitary cysts is?
severely compromised growth (think little german shepherd)
Bacteremia, sinusitis, extension of otits media, parasitic migrations and bull-rings in the noses of bulls can all cause ________.
inflammation of the pituitary
Bacteremia in very young animals is most often associated with ___________.
failure of passive transfer
Chromophobe adenomas are AKA?
tumor of pars distalis
Chromophobe adenomas most often cause an increase of _________; which is primary _______.
ACTH; cushings dz
Tumors of the pars distalis are more common in ______ while tumors of the pars intermedia are more common in _______.
Too much ACTH causing excessive cortisol secretion is primary or 2ndary hypersecretion of the adrenal gland?
secondary; (primary hypersecretion of the adrenal gland is caused by some pathology of the adrenal gland itself)
Pituitary carcinomas in dogs are _____ but ______.
A pituitary adenoma that is producing increased amounts of ACTH will cause __________ hypertrophy of the _______ glands; which is a clinical sign of this dz.
bilateral; adrenal; cushings
What is the most commonly diagnosed equine endocrinopathy? lay term?
pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction; cushings (not the same as dogs cushings)
Canine cushings causes too much _____ to be produced in the pars distalis while equine cushings causes too much ______ in the pars intermedia.
PU/ PD, hyperthermia/sweating, increased appetite, muscle weakness, are all general signs of ________ compression. Generally associated w/ ________ dz in horses.
Hirsutism in horses is pathognomonic for?
pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction
Regulation of the metabolic rate, growth and development, distribution of H20, salts, and colloids, as well as lipid and CHO metabolism are all achieved by the?
Thyroglossal duct cysts can interfere w/ ______ and an transform into_______.
What is the most common canine endocrinopahty?
What are the two pathogeneses to hypothyroidism?
idiopathic; immune mediated
Auto-immune distruction of the thyroid is more often seen in _______ dogs, while idiopathic loss is often seen in _______.
Atherosclerosis is pathognomonic for _______ in dogs.
What pathology of the blood caused by hypothyroidism is the direct cause of atherosclerosis?
Which breed of dog is predisposed to auto-immune thyroid destruction?
50% of dogs with immune mediated hypothyroidism have ______.
Most of the time, destroyed thyroidal tissue is replaced by?
Alopecia, hyperpigmentation, myxedema, and a pot-bellied apperance are all indicative of?
100% of hair follicles in areas of alopecia on a hypothyroid dog are in what growth phase?
No inflammation, hyperkeratosis, atropy of sebacious glands, epidermal atrophy, myxedema and mild acanthosis are all skin lesions seen w/ what endocrine dz?
Enlarged and white coronary arteries as well as white distended mesenteric vessels can be thought to have _______, which is pathognomonic for _________.
T/F Angular limb deformities can be caused by hypothyroidism.
_________ is the anagram for diagnosing angular limb deformities.
M. (malpositiong in utero) E. (excessive joint laxity) T. (trauma) H. (hypothyoridism) O. (over nutrition) D. (defective endochondral ossification)
What is a non-neoplastic increase in thyroid size? What are the two mechanisms for its development?
goiter; primary lack of iodine in the diet; substances that inhibit iodine uptake by the thyroid gland
A goitrogen is a substance that ______.
inhibit iodine uptake by the thyroid gland
Goiter is most often seen in ______.
Why do animals with goiter die during birth?
hypertrophy of thyroid = increased size = increaed pressure in birth canal = death
T/F excess dietary iodine can cause goiter.
Perchlorate, periodate preservatives, nitrates in green oats, barley and water are all _______ goitrogens that cause______.
Thiocynates. cyanides, white clover, canole, kale, and linseed meal can all cause _______.
High blood calcium prevents the reabsorption of excreted ________ and can cause goiter.
Almost all thyroid neoplasias are _______ and are common in ____.
Thyroid tumors that metastasized tend to form at the ________ and have a poor ______.
base of the heart; prognosis
T/F benign adenomatous hyperplasia of the thyroid vs. adenoma of the thyroid are hard to differentiate in cats and cause the same clinical signs.
In cats, adenomas of the thyroid tend to be _______ while hyperplasia is usually _______.
Thyroid adenocarcinomas are ______ ______ in cats.
T/F hyperthyroidism in cats can cause hypertrophic cardiac myopathy
Primary hyperparathyroidism in older animals is most often dute to?
Hyperparathyroidism can be defined by an?
excess of PTH or PTH-rp in the blood
What is pseudohyperparathyroidism?
when PTH-rp is being produced by neoplastic non-endocrine tissue in older animals
Prostate adenocarcinomas and lymphomas are the main source of ________ in pseudo _____.
Activation of osteoclasts, excessive bone resorption, fibrous osteodystrophy, and mineralization in the kidneys, lungs, and gastric mucosa are all consequences of?
What is primary parahyperthyroidism?
inappropriate secretion of PTH by autonomously functioning chief cells of the thyroid.
80-85% of all cases of hyperparathyroidism in dogs is a result of a?
Which breed is predisposed to hyperparathyroidism?
Widespread tissue calcifation is often a sequela to hyperparathyroidism because excessive PTH causes an __________.
excessive increase of calcium in the blood
Hyperphosphatemia binds circulating Ca2+ causing a decrease in Ca2+ levels and a subsequent release of PTH, which can cause a ______ hyperparathyroidism because hyperphosphatemia is most often due to ______.
secondary/renal ; renal failure
Interstitial fibrosis of the kidney is the number one sign of?
Dogs and cats on a liver and bread diet as well as birds on a seed diet can develop this type of hyperparathyroidism.
A high _____ and low ______ diet can cause this type of hyperparathyroidism.
phosphorous; calcium; secondary nutritional
Carnivores ususally develop dietary hyperparathyroidism from inadequate dietary _______ while horses it is due to exessive _______.
Most horses with hyperparathyroidism develop lesions in the ________ known as ________, while dogs develop lesions in the _______ known as _____.
maxilla; big head/ bran dz; mandible; rubber jaw
Animals with fibrous osteodystrophy replace bone with?
Insufficient ________ in reptiles can cause hyperparathyroidism.
Diabetes mellitus, cardiomyopathy, and renal failure are all on the top of the DD list for?
hypertrophy of the costochondral junction in the ribs of swine is pathognomonic for?
vit d. dependant ricketts
Vit d. dependant ricketts is aka what type?
This type of vit. d. dependant rickets is characterized by target organ resistance to active vit. d3.
Simian bone dz in new world primates is what type of ricketts?
Cestrum diurnum, solanum, and trisetum flaviscens can all cause hyper ______ and act as active _______ causing a toxicitiy and mineralization of soft tissues.
calcemia; vit D 3
Anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinomas produce large amounts of ________ and are NOT the ______ gland.
Progressive loss of beta cells in the pancreas is AKA?
IDD, primary hypofunction
IRD is caused by?
antagonism of insulin by another hormone
Diestrus, hyperadrenocortisim, acromegaly, synthetic glucocorticoids, and synthetic progestagens can all be a prequel to what type of diabetes?
canine insulin resistant diabetes
Diabetes in cats is often associated with the build up of this protein in the islets of langerhans.
Emaciation, acute necrohemorrhagic pancreatitis, hepatic lipidosis, cataracts, and emphysematous cystits are all signs of what dz?
Insulinomas are common in _______ and rare in other spp.
What is the most common clincal sign due to a functional insulinoma?
CNS due to hypoglycemia
15% of the zona glomerulosa produces this _______, 70% of the fasiculata produces this _______, and 15% of the reticularis produces this_____.
aldosterone, glucocorticoids (cortisol), androsterone
Adrenal hemorrhage is often due to _______ .
Salmonella and actinobacillus equuli are suspects in hemorrhage of the ______.
Primary adrenal cortical atrophy is _______ while secondary is a ________.
immune mediated destruction; loss of ACTH
The loss of the zona glomerulosa causes a decrease in _________ and causes this dz.
aldosterone (abnormal electrolytes); addisons
Addisons dz causes high serum_____ which results in _____and _____ dysfunction; as well as a low serum ______ causing hypovolemia.
K+; cardiac and skeletal muscle; Na+
80% of cushings dz in dogs is due to _____ while 15 % is due to _______, and 5% is due to ________.
pituitary neoplasia; adrenal cortical neoplasia; iatrogenic
Adrenal dependant cushings dz will have one ______ adrenal and one _______ adrenal while pituitary dependant cushings will have _______ adreal glands.
normal, hypertrophic; bilateral hypertrophic
Adrenal adenomas/carcinomas are the most common cause of what in ferrets?
Prolonged hyper-estrogenism can result in ________ due to bone marrow supression.
Horses usually have ______ pheochromocytomas while cattle and dogs have ______, ______ and ______.
benign; adrenal cortical adenomas; adrenal cortical adenocarcinomas; and malignant pheochromoctyomas
Ferrets w/ abdominal masses = _______.
In adrenal-assoc. endocrinopathy in ferrets _____ levels are generally normal and is why it is not cushings but rather elevated _______; and if it is caused by neoplasia it usually does not _______ and carries a good prognosis.
cortisol; estrogen; metastisize
Enlarged vulvas, bilateral symmetrical alopecia is almost pathognomonic for _______ in ferrets.
adrenal hyperplasia, adenoma, or carcinoma
A pheochromocytoma is a ______.
tumor of the adrenal medulla
A pheochromocytoma produces ____and _____.
epi, nor epi.
Pheochromocytomas are most common in?
dogs and cattle
Pheochromocytomas are frequently ______ and ______.
hemorrhagic and mineralized
IHC, k-dichromate, and Zenker's stains are all used to ID?