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Parts of a eukaryotic cell (animal and plant) and their functions

Flagellum

locomtion organelle present in some animal cells; composed of a cluster of microtubules within an extension of the plasma membrane (not found in plant cells)

Centrosome

region where the cell's microtubules are initiated; contains a pair of centrioles (not found in plant cells)

Cytoskeleton

reinforces cell's shape, functions in cell movement; components are made of proteins

Microfilaments

component of the Cytoskeleton; cell motility/shape/division; cytoplasmic streaming; muscle contraction; cell shape

Intermediate Filaments

component of the Cytoskeleton; fomation of nuclear lamina; anchorage of nucleus/organelles; cell shape

Microtubules

component of the Cytoskeleton; organelle/cell motility; chromosome movement; cell shape

Microvilli

projections that increase the cell's surface area

Peroxisome

organelle with various specialized functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, then converts it to water

Mitochondrion

organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated

Lysosome

digestive organelle where macromolecules are hyrolyzed (not found in plant cells)

Golgi Apparatus

organell active in sythesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products

Ribosomes

complexes that make proteins; free in cytosol or bound to rough ER or nuclear envelope

Plasma Membrane

mambrane enclosing the cell

Chromatin

material consisting of DNA and proteins; visible as individual chromosomes in a dividing cell

Nucleolus

structure involved in production of ribosomes; a nucleus has one or more nucleoli

Nuclear Envelope

double membrane enclosing the nucleus; perforated by pores; continuous with ER

Endoplamic Reticulum

network of membranous sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes; has rough and smooth regions

Cell Wall

outer layer the maintains cell's shape and protects cell from mechanical damage; made of cellulose, other polysaccharides, and protein (not found in animal cells)

Plasmodesmata

channels through cell walls that connects the cytoplasms of adjacent cells (not found in animal cells)

Chloroplast

phtosyntheitc organelle; converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules (not found in animal cells)

Central Vacuole

prominent organelle in older plant cells; functions include storage, breakdown of waste, hydrolysis of macromolecules; enlargement of vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth (not found in animal cells)

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