Art Appreciation Final

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Week 8 - 13

In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge photographed a galloping horse, and discovered that

galloping horses occasionally have all four hooves off the ground.

The supervision by one individual or group over the artistic expression of another individual or group is known as

censorship.

Artists primarily used the camera obscura to

produce naturalistic drawings of the world.

Andy Warhol's film Empire

is a film about watching time pass.

The use by artists of the camera obscura (literally dark room) began in

the Italian Renaissance.

The creation of a photographic body of work around an event, place, or culture is known as

photojournalism.

A major difference between the work of a "pure" or "straight" photographer, such as Alfred Stieglitz, and the work of a documentary photographer, such as Dorothea Lange, is

the different intentions of each photographer.

Early examples of art photography often imitated

the narrative form of painting.

________ is closely associated with Alfred Stieglitz's assertion that for photography to be an art, it should be true to its own nature.

The Steerage

The Farm Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture

paid photographers to document the Great Depression.

A daguerreotype was an early photographic method created using a

copper plate covered with silver iodine.

Dada collage artist Hannah Höch used "found" photographs to express

all of these: artistic composition; the overwhelming experience of the mechanized city; and disgust with a civilization that allowed the slaughter of World War I.

The Lumière brothers

invented the first workable film projector.

The Dada movement was formed as a reaction to

World War I.

One of the most celebrated 19th-century artists, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, created posters for the famous dance hall called

the Moulin Rouge.

Although symbols convey information and embody ideas,

they have no meaning in themselves; their meaning is invented by cultural use; and the ideas they embody may change radically with time.

The ________ first made it possible to devise a notice that could be reproduced in large numbers and distributed widely.

printing press

Which graphic design team developed the familiar set of symbols used today to communicate information across language barriers to international travelers?

Cook and Shanosky

A ________ is often the first and key element in creating a complete corporate identity.

logo

According to the author, graphic design as we know it today has its roots in two developments. They are

the printing press and the Industrial Revolution.

An image created to accompany words is called

an illustration.

Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans

is a portrait of graphic design.

A designer's blueprint for books and magazines and other works in print is called

a layout.

Cassidy Curtis's Graffiti Archaeology is organized by ________ to effectively display its subject.

location and time

The video about the Audi TT sedan by designers Matt Pyke at Universal Everything and Karsten Schmidt at PostSpectacular

used a programming language called Processing; never actually showed the car; and did not require production work after it was originally shot.

The carving method

is all of these: a subtractive process, more aggressive than modeling, and more direct than casting.

The Indian sculpture Durga Fighting the Buffalo Demon is an example of

high-relief sculpture.

The additive process of sculpture includes

both assembling and modeling.

In sculpture, what is the most popular modeling material?

clay

Relief sculpture is

all of these: not meant to be viewed in the round, not finished on all sides, and often used to decorate architecture.

Four basic methods for making a sculpture are

modeling, casting, carving, and assembling.

The subtractive process involves

carving.

Which of the following concepts conceives of a space and everything in it as a work of art?

installation art

Sculptors will often create a "sketch" out of ________ to test ideas before proceeding to their medium of choice.

clay

Fired clay is sometimes called

terra cotta.

Casting is known as ________ method.

an indirect

Contrapposto (meaning counter poise or counterbalance) was developed by ________ as a pose for sculptures of the human figure.

ancient Greeks

The ________ process dates back to the 3rd millennium B.C.E.

lost-wax

________ is a sculptural process of bringing together individual pieces, segments, or objects to form a sculpture.

Assemblage

Serpent Mound and Spiral Jetty are known as

earthworks.

The artworks of Christo and Jeanne-Claude are intended

All these answers are correct.

What separates the art object from the craft object?

There is no definite line.

Wood is not very durable because

all of these are the case: cold and heat distort it; water rots it; and insects can eat it away.

The principal ingredient of glass is

sand.

Although the chemical composition of ________ changes when exposed to extreme heat, ________ doesn't change chemically when its pliability is altered by heat.

clay; glass

In weaving, the set of fibers that is held taut on a loom or frame is called

the warp.

Wood is a popular craft material because

it is abundant and relatively easy to work.

Which of the following is made from the sap of a tree?

lacquer

The ancient Olmecs of Mesoamerica prized ________ for its translucence, which they associated with rainwater.

jade

An archaeologist asked ________ to reconstruct an entire pot from a broken piece he had found, thus launching her career and the revival of Pueblo pottery.

Mar'a Mart'nez

The Langston Hughes Library was designed by

Maya Lin.

The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian styles are known as the

Greek orders.

Using a steel framework with masonry sheathing, the ________, designed by Louis Sullivan, is thought by many to be the first genuinely modern building.

Wainwright Building

Stacking and piling is another term for

load-bearing construction.

Two factors that decide the success of any structural system are

weight and tensile strength.

Built for the World's Fair in 1889, the ________ was an early experiment in iron construction.

Eiffel Tower

A ________ is a horizontal form supported at only one end.

cantilever

The ability of a material to span horizontal distances with a minimum of support is called

tensile strength.

Built almost 2000 years ago, the ________ is an enduring testament to the Roman use of the arch.

Pont du Gard at Nîmes

The Byodo-in Temple in Kyoto, Japan, is an elegant example of

post-and-lintel architecture.

Fallingwater (the Kaufmann House in Bear Run, Pennsylvania) is a prime example of the "organic" architecture of

Frank Lloyd Wright.

________ is most famous for his design of the geodesic dome.

R. Buckminster Fuller

The International style emphasizes

all of these: clean lines, geometric form, and avoidance of superficial decoration.

________ rotated 360 degrees on its axis is called a dome.

An arch

The two basic families of structural systems in architecture are

the shell and the skeleton-and-skin.

Builders of Gothic cathedrals reinforced the walls of their architecture from the outside with

both piers and flying buttresses.

The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian styles of columns were developed by the Greeks in the ________ centuries B.C.E., respectively.

7th, 6th, and 4th

When a large hall is built using post-and-lintel construction methods, the resulting "virtual forest of columns" is called a

hypostyle hall.

Because they lacked stone, the ancient Sumerians built their cities of

sun-dried brick.

The chances that a work of art from ancient times will be found or preserved are greatly increased if

All these answers are correct.

The bronze head of an Akkadian ruler is a rare example of ________ in ancient art.

naturalism

To compensate for the natural visual distortion in which tall columns appear to bend inward, the Greeks gave them a slight bulge, which is known as

entasis.

In Egyptian art, the convention of representing social importance by size - for example, where the pharaoh is shown much larger than his subjects - is known as

hierarchical scale.

The most notable example of Neolithic architecture in Europe is

Stonehenge in England.

King Tutankhamun's tomb was discovered in 1922 by

Howard Carter.

Under the reign of ________, a new, more naturalistic style of Egyptian art developed.

Amenhotep IV

The earliest-known writing system from which a recorded language developed was the invention of

the Sumerians.

The sculpture Akhenaten and His Family is an example of the ________ technique.

sunken relief

Although bronze was the favored material for freestanding sculpture in Greece, most bronze statues have not survived, because

they were melted down to make weapons and other objects.

What destroyed the Roman colonies of Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 C.E.?

the eruption of a volcano

The mummy of Artemidoros, from Fayum, shows the influence of the ________ culture(s).

Egyptian, Greek, and Roman

Romans could watch gladiators fight to the death, along with other sporting events, at the

Colosseum.

Three majors cultures that preceded the Greeks in and around the Aegean Sea were the ________ cultures.

Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean

A true arch was developed by ________ architects long before the Romans came up with the idea.

Neo-Babylonian

The walled, upward extension of the nave that is pierced with windows is called the

clerestory.

The cross-shaped floor plan of a church is formed by the combined shapes of the nave and the

transept.

The major axis of a central-plan church, such as the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, is

vertical.

The mosaic Christ as the Sun exemplifies early Christian artists' appropriation of ________ iconography.

both Greek and Roman

Unlike their Greek and Roman predecessors, Byzantine artists preferred

a flattened, abstracted style of art.

Architects of Romanesque churches began installing ________ around the apse, which allowed the overflow of pilgrims to circulate freely around the interior of the church.

ambulatories

________ is a pattern or patterns formed by intricately interwoven ribbons or bands.

Interlace

The art and architecture of the high Middle Ages is generally divided into two periods, the ________ and the ________.

Romanesque; Gothic

Gothic cathedrals are known especially for

their stained glass windows.

In neo-Platonic thought, the Biblical character of Eve was identified with

Venus.

Who were the Limbourgs?

artist brothers

The German artist Hans Holbein was court painter to

King Henry VIII of England.

One of the effects of the Renaissance was to change the status of artists in Europe from

skilled crafts workers to intellectuals.

The word renaissance means

"rebirth."

The technology of painting with oils was developed

by northern Europeans.

The era known as the High Renaissance encompasses a time period of about ________ years.

twenty-five

The theme of the Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes comes from

None of these answers is correct.

________ organization, as seen in Masaccio's Trinity with the Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, and Donors, was a popular device among Renaissance artists of Italy.

Triangular

Michelangelo, Raphael, and Botticelli were all commissioned to make art for

the Medici family.

The technique of sfumato involves the use of

multiple layers of glazes.

Giorgione's painting The Tempest paved the way for future

landscape paintings.

One of Michelangelo's major achievements was

redesigning St. Peter's Cathedral.

The Isenheim Altarpiece, with its gruesome details of Christ's flesh wounds, originally hung in

a hospital for patients with skin disease.

Gianlorenzo Bernini was

All these answers are correct.

Which work of art tells the story of a man who was murdered in his bath?

The Death of Marat

The Baroque painting Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes depicts a story from

the Bible.

Paintings depicting scenes of everyday life are known as ________ paintings.

genre

In Baroque architecture, wall surfaces often protrude into the viewer's space. In Baroque painting, this same effect is created through the use of

dramatic lighting.

________ helped shape the Neoclassical style.

The excavations of ancient Pompeii and Herculaneum

Unlike Baroque art from Catholic countries, Dutch Baroque art focused upon

all of these: the community, business life, and the family and home.

In comparison to Baroque art, the style of Rococo

is more playful and lighthearted.

St. Teresa in Ecstasy is an excellent example of

Baroque sculpture.

A work of art that uses a tragic Roman tale to arouse feelings of patriotism, self-sacrifice, and civic virtues in its viewers is

The Oath of the Horatii.

Which artists intentionally used their work to shape the public's view of prominent figures?

Vigée-Lebrun and David

The term New York School refers to a postwar art movement that

was a convenient way to lump together the Abstract Expressionists.

Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty is an example of

Land art.

The Guerrilla Girls use posters and on-site appearances to

bring attention to gender inequalities in the art world.

One of the ideas behind Postmodernism is pluralism, which proposes that art

can take many directions at the same time, all of them equally valid.

The term action painting refers to the fact that this new type of painting

traced the actions of the painter.

Minimalism, a trend that coexisted with Pop, emphasized a continuation of the exploration of nonrepresentation and the idea that a painting or sculpture is primarily

a physical object.

Photorealism refers to

a movement in painting that explores the way a camera "sees."

Early Conceptualists reacted to the burgeoning art market by

attempting to eliminate the art object.

Artist Jean-Michel Basquiat

began as a graffiti artist.

In Joseph Kosuth's One and Three Chairs, the viewer is presented with

three ways of documenting an idea.

A Neo-Dada artist who made art from "found" materials and images and named his new art form "combine paintings" is

Robert Rauschenberg.

A good example of a Surrealist poetic object is

Object (Luncheon in Fur) by Meret Oppenheim.

The first national art museum opened in 1793. This museum, still in operation today, is

the Louvre in Paris.

Which art movement was directly influenced by Sigmund Freud's theories of the unconscious?

Surrealism

In their paintings, the Impressionists often focused on

scenes of leisure involving the middle class.

Eugène Delacroix was a leading practitioner of the

Romantic style.

A major influence upon European culture of the 19th century, one that gave rise to an expanding middle class, was

the Industrial Revolution.

Edouard Manet considered the annual Salon of Paris to be an artist's only true "field of battle." What was the Salon of Paris?

a juried exhibition sponsored by the French government

Henri Matisse was told by Gustave Moreau, his teacher at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, "You were born to ________."

simplify painting

The recent manufacture of oil paint in tubes made it possible for 19th-century European artists to make painting a portable activity. The spontaneity and directness of painting outdoors is evident in works by ________ artists.

Impressionist

Which of the following is an American artist?

All these answers are correct.

Marcel Duchamp created a new art form in which the artist makes nothing, but merely labels an object as art. He called this art form

ready-mades.

Paul Cézanne's emphasis on structure in painting was a direct influence in the development of

Cubism.

Vasili Kandinsky became convinced that art should be free of representational subject matter when he

mistook an upside-down painting of his for an unfamiliar work of spectacular beauty.

Romantic art stresses

drama, unbridled emotions, and complex compositions.

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