Bio Lab mid term

Created by yemeya05 

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Vocabulary

gram

base unit of mass

meter

base unit for length

liter

base unit of volume

taring

the process of which the mass of the boat or paper is subtracted for the total mass to determine the mass of the load.

meniscus

the curved interface in between the water and air.

proportions

statements of equal ratios

Freezing point

0 degree Celsius or 32 degrees Fahrenheit

boiling point of water

100 degree celsius or 212 degree Fahrenheit

average body temp

37 degree celsius 0r 98.6 degrees fahrenheit

converting fahrenheit to celsius

F=(C X 1.8) + 32

converting celsius to fahrenheit

C= F - 32/ 1.8

Percent experimental error equation

observed % error = observed value - expected value/ expected value X 100

Important points when using a digital micro pipet

never use without a tip.
- never lay down with a full tip
-never let the plunger snap back up while withdrawing or after ejecting fluid
-always hold in vertical position
-never dial # greater or less than the range or pipet
-never re use the tip in a new solution

x axis

independent variable ( ie time)

y axis

dependent variable ( ie what is being studied)

compound microscope

consists of a compound of 3 lenses that interact to allow the specimen to be brought into focus. image hits the eye upside down and backwards

parfocal

the ability for a microscope to maintain focus when switching between lenses.

transmission electron microscope

see inside the cell. looks flat

scanning electron microscope

detailed 3D surface od cell

field diameter

the diameter of the circle of light that you see when looking through the scope.

wet mount

when a slide is prepared by flooding a fresh specimen in some non preserving solution.

prepared slides

fixed with a special solution that prevents the specimen from deteriorating.

Cytologist

the study of cells

histology

the study of tissue

pathology

the study of disease

squamous epithelium

means flat tissue that line the surface of the body

cell wall

surround the plasma wall. gives cell its shape. prevents cell from bursting (plants only)

cell membrane

controls what goes in and out of cell

chloroplast

generates ATP= converts solar energy to chemical energy. (plants only)

mitochondria

generate ATP- harvests chemical energy from food

golgi body

receives and modifies product made by the ER

Centriole

Help with cell division by separating chromosomes. ( animals only)

large central vacuole

absorbs H2O in plant cell

nucleus

houses DNA and RNA

nucleolus

rRNA is made

cocci

spherical shaped bacteria

spirilla

spiral shaped bacteria

Staph

clusters of cells of bacteria

strep

stands of bacteria cells

cell of membrane consists of:

phopholipids and proteins

semipremable

not all substances can pass through the phospholipid bilayer.

aquaporin

most H2O molecules move in and out of cells by passing through these special protein pores

concentration

concentration= amount of solute/ volume of solution

concentration gradient

when solutions of different solute concentrations are separated by a barrier.

kinetic energy

the energy of the movement

hypertonic

more solute less water

hypotonic

les solute more water

isotonic

equal solutes

diffusion

random movement of particles down the concentration gradient from high to low concentration

net movement

diffusion moves away from the area of high concentration

osmosis

movement of H2O molecules to higher concentrated area

crenate

red blood cells that look shriveled up b/c they have lost water to their surroundings

hemolyze

RBS that are placed in a hypotonic solution will swell and become spherical then burst due to influx of too much water

passive transport

solutes move from high to low concentration across a membrane

hyponatermia

low sodium concentration in blood.

enzymes

critical to living cells b/c enzymes control reactions of cell metabolism

Cellular metabolism

includes all the chemical reactions that take place in the cell

Dehydration synthesis

build molecules hydrolus reactions which degrade molecules

enzyme

increase that rate of a reaction by 1 million times

substrate

enzymes bind to only one specific compound, called the substrate

active site

the shape of the binding on the enzyme

induced fit theory

once the substrate binds to the active site the enzyme changes shape slightly to bind the substrate more tightly

denatured

an inactivated enzyme

optimal

ideal conditions for enzyme activity

pH

the measure of the H+ concentration in the solution

temperature

all chemical reactions speed up as temp is raised, however above 60 degrees celsius, many proteins are denatured

enzyme concentration

the higher the initial concentration of an enzyme the more product will be made pr unit time

inhibitors

inhibit the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex

catalase

the enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of H2O2 in to O2 and H2O

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