base unit for length
base unit of volume
the process of which the mass of the boat or paper is subtracted for the total mass to determine the mass of the load.
the curved interface in between the water and air.
statements of equal ratios
0 degree Celsius or 32 degrees Fahrenheit
boiling point of water
100 degree celsius or 212 degree Fahrenheit
average body temp
37 degree celsius 0r 98.6 degrees fahrenheit
converting fahrenheit to celsius
F=(C X 1.8) + 32
converting celsius to fahrenheit
C= F - 32/ 1.8
Percent experimental error equation
observed % error = observed value - expected value/ expected value X 100
Important points when using a digital micro pipet
never use without a tip.
- never lay down with a full tip
-never let the plunger snap back up while withdrawing or after ejecting fluid
-always hold in vertical position
-never dial # greater or less than the range or pipet
-never re use the tip in a new solution
independent variable ( ie time)
dependent variable ( ie what is being studied)
consists of a compound of 3 lenses that interact to allow the specimen to be brought into focus. image hits the eye upside down and backwards
the ability for a microscope to maintain focus when switching between lenses.
transmission electron microscope
see inside the cell. looks flat
scanning electron microscope
detailed 3D surface od cell
the diameter of the circle of light that you see when looking through the scope.
when a slide is prepared by flooding a fresh specimen in some non preserving solution.
fixed with a special solution that prevents the specimen from deteriorating.
the study of cells
the study of tissue
the study of disease
means flat tissue that line the surface of the body
surround the plasma wall. gives cell its shape. prevents cell from bursting (plants only)
controls what goes in and out of cell
generates ATP= converts solar energy to chemical energy. (plants only)
generate ATP- harvests chemical energy from food
receives and modifies product made by the ER
Help with cell division by separating chromosomes. ( animals only)
large central vacuole
absorbs H2O in plant cell
houses DNA and RNA
spherical shaped bacteria
spiral shaped bacteria
clusters of cells of bacteria
stands of bacteria cells
cell of membrane consists of:
phopholipids and proteins
not all substances can pass through the phospholipid bilayer.
most H2O molecules move in and out of cells by passing through these special protein pores
concentration= amount of solute/ volume of solution
when solutions of different solute concentrations are separated by a barrier.
the energy of the movement
more solute less water
les solute more water
random movement of particles down the concentration gradient from high to low concentration
diffusion moves away from the area of high concentration
movement of H2O molecules to higher concentrated area
red blood cells that look shriveled up b/c they have lost water to their surroundings
RBS that are placed in a hypotonic solution will swell and become spherical then burst due to influx of too much water
solutes move from high to low concentration across a membrane
low sodium concentration in blood.
critical to living cells b/c enzymes control reactions of cell metabolism
includes all the chemical reactions that take place in the cell
build molecules hydrolus reactions which degrade molecules
increase that rate of a reaction by 1 million times
enzymes bind to only one specific compound, called the substrate
the shape of the binding on the enzyme
induced fit theory
once the substrate binds to the active site the enzyme changes shape slightly to bind the substrate more tightly
an inactivated enzyme
ideal conditions for enzyme activity
the measure of the H+ concentration in the solution
all chemical reactions speed up as temp is raised, however above 60 degrees celsius, many proteins are denatured
the higher the initial concentration of an enzyme the more product will be made pr unit time
inhibit the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex
the enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of H2O2 in to O2 and H2O
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