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lymph fluid

conn. tissue monitored by this system

what is lymph fluid carried by?

lymphatic vessels

lymphocytes

cells suspended within lymph fluid

lymphatic fluid consists of:

-interstitial fluid(like blood plasma)
-lymphocytes-cells responsible for immune response
-macrophages of various types

Functions of lymphatic system

1-produce, maintain, and distribute lymphocytes
2-maintain normal blood volume and eliminate local variations in the chemical composition of interstitial fluid
3-Provide an alternative route for the transport of hormones, nutrients, and waste products

Lymphatic vessels, or lymphatics do...?

carry lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous system

lymphatic capillary walls?

endothelial cells that overlap instead of being tightly bound to one another; acts as a one way valve to let fluid in but not letting it escape

lacteals

lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine that transport lipids absorbed by the digestive tract

any lymphatics in bones or cns?

no.

what gives lymph vessels beaded appearance?

valves

interstitial fluid pressure?

lower than venous pressure

lymphedema

vascular capillaries lets out fluid but lymph system cant remove it; tissues become swollen

superficial lymphatics?

found in subcutaneous layer of skin, loose con. tissue of mucous membranes lining the digestive, reproductive, respiratory and urinary tracts, and loose con. tissue of serous membranes lining pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities

deep lymphatics?

large lymph vessels that accompany deep arteries and veins, that collect lymph from skeletal muscles and other deep stuff

what lymphatic trunks r there?

lumbar trunks, intestinal trunks, bronchomediastinal trunks, subclavian trunks, and jugular trunks

lymphatic ducts

two collecting vessels that deliver lymph to venous circulation

thoracic duct

collects lymph from both sides of body inferior to the diaphragm and from the left side of the body superior to the diaphragm

cisterna chyli

an enlarged pouch on the thoracic duct that serves as a storage area for lymph moving toward its point of entry into the venous system

lymphocytes respond to what

1-invading organsisms
2-abnormal body cells
3-foreign proteins

T cells are...

thymus dependant

B cells are...

bone marrow derived

NK cells are...

natural killer cells

Cytotoxic T cells

attack foreign or body cells w/ virus

cell mediated immunity

when immunity relies on lymphoctyes, like helper and killer t cells, the first type of t cells activating the latter, which ruptures macrophage and kills the infected cell

who assists in regulation and coordination of immune response?

helper t cells and suppressor t cells

memory T cells

remain "on reserve" in case the same antigen appears in the body at a later date

when does a b cell differentiate in to a plasmocyte?

when stimulated by exposure to an antigen

macrophages

killer cells

arteriole

smallest artery in body where oxygen is still in blood

lymphatic capillaries

absorb interstitial fluid, dissolve solutes viruses and bacteria

lymphatic vessels

carry lymph from peripheral tissue to venus system

valves

prevent backflow

lymph nodes

lymphoid organs that monitor the composition of lymph

spleen

largest lymph organ, removes abnormal blood cells and other stuff through phagocytosis, storage of iron recycled from broken down rbc's, and initiation of immune responses by B cells and T cells in response to antigens in the circulating blood

Thymus gland

posterior of sternum; site of T cell formation

Microscopic connection to circulatory system

begin in bone marrow
then thymus cells
T cells
attack abnormal cells in body

macroscopic connection to circulatory system(collecting vessels)

lymphatic trunks(empty into collecting vessels)
thoracic duct(collects from most of left body and some right)
cisterna chyli(base of lymphatic duct collects from inferior of body
right lymphatic duct(collects lymph from right upper body

cortex of lymph node

outside layer or portion of organ

medulla

core of lymph node

afferent vessels

bring lymph to node

efferent vessels

bring lymph out of node

hilus

when blood vessels and nerves attach to lymph node and make an indentation

lymphocytes

cells responsible for immune response

lymphadenopathy

enlargement of lymph nodes

"swollen glands"

lymphodema

axillary nodes?

armpits

cervical nodes?

neck

inguinal nodes

groin

lymphopoeisis

production of lymphocytes

cell mediated immunity

direct attack by activated T cells

antibody mediated immunity

attack by circulating antibodies released by the plasmocytes derived from activated B cells

Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)

GI, urinary, respiratory, reproductive

peyers patch

gut-associated lymphatic tissue (in walls of intestines)

thymus

superior to heart, gets smaller as u age,

appendix

beginning of large intestine

pharyngeal tonsil(adenoids)

by nasal cavity, if it grows cant bring air in through nose

lingual tonsils

base of tongue

palatine tonsils

where you swallow, enlarged when sore throat, between folds on top of mouth

dendritic cells

collect antigens from the lymph and present them in their cell membranes

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