AP Art History Packet 6

85 terms by Prasi1 

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la da di da di, art histooory

Alternate-support system

in the church architecture, the use of alternating wall supports in the nave, usually piers and columns or compound piers of alternating form

Arcade

a series of arches supported by piers or columns

Archivolt

the continuous molding framining an arch, in Romanesque or Gothic architecture, on of the series of concentric bands framing the tympanum

bar tracery

tracery which is composed of thin stone elements rather than thick ones as in plate tracery, the glass rather than the stone dominates when bar tracery is used, more delicate and web-like effect

blind arcade

row of unpierced arches attached to a wall in order to strengthen or decorate it, those intended for decoration are often richly carved

Campanile

a bell tower of a church, usually, but not always, freestanding

Compound pier

a pier with a group, or cluster, of attached shafts, or responds, especially characteristic of Gothic architecture

Crossing square

the space in a cruciform church formed by the intersection of the nave and the transept

Crossing tower

the tower over the crossing of a church

Crusades

in medieval Europe, armed pilgrimages aimed at recapturing the Holy Land from the Muslims

Embroidery

technique of sewing threads onto a finished ground to form contrasting designs

Incrustation

wall decoration consisting of bring(?) panels of different colors

Jambs

in architecture, the side posts of a doorway

Lectionary

a book containing passages from the Gospels, arranged in the sequences that they are to be read during the celebration of religious services, including the Mass, throughout the year.

Lintel

a beam used to span an opening

Pilgrimage

a journey to a sacred place or shrine

Pillar

usually a weight-carrying member, such as a pier or column; sometimes an isolated, freestanding structure used for commemorative purposes

Portal

door, gate, or entrance, esp. one of imposing appearance

Radiating chapels

in medieval churches, chapels for the display of relics that opened directly onto the ambulatory and the transept

Reliquary

a container for keeping relics

Rib

a relatively slender, molded masonry arch that projects from a surface; in Gothic architecture, the ribs form the framework of the vaulting, a diagonal rib is one of the ribs that form the X of a groin

Rib vault

a vault in which the diagonal and transverse ribs compose a structural skeleton that partially supports the masonry web between them

Romanesque

"Roman like"; a term used to describe the history, culture, and art of medieval Western Europe from ca 1050 to ca 1200

Scriptorium

the writing studio of a monastery

Sculpture in the round

freestanding figures, carved or modeled in 3 dimensions

Springing

the lowest stone of an arch, resting on the impost block; in Gothic vaulting, the lowest stone of a diagonal or transverse rib

Stringcourse

a raised horizontal molding, or band in masonry, ornamental but usually reflecting interior structure

Thrust

the outward force exerted by an arch or vault that must be counterbalanced by a buttress

Transom

crosspece separating a door or the like from a window

Transverse arch

an arch separating one vaulted bay from the next

Tribune

in church architecture, a gallery over the inner aisle flanking the nave

Trumeau

in church architecture, the pillar or center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the doorway

Tympanum

Gothic. semicircular over the doorway for a church enclosed by an arch. decorated.

Vault

a masonry roof or ceiling constructed on the arch principle

Barrel or tunnel vault

semi cylindrical in cross-section is in effect a deep arch or an uninterrupted series of arches, one behind the other, over an oblong space; a quadrant vault is a half-barrel vault

Groin or Cross vault

formed at the point at which two barrel vaults intersect at right angles

Ribbed vault

framework of ribs or arches under the intersections of the vaulting sections

Sexpartite vault

a vault whose ribs divide the vault into 6 compartments

Fan vault

a vault characteristic of English Perpendicular Gothic, in which radiating ribs form a fanlike pattern

Westwork

the facade and towers at the western end of a medieval church, mainly in Germany

Battlement

a low parapet at the top of a circuit wall in fortification

Bottega

the studio of a master artist which apprenticies or students learn by participating in the work

Breviary

a Christian religious book of selected daily praters and psalms

Buttress

an exterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or a vault

Pier buttress

a solid mass of masonry

Flying buttress

consists typically of an inclined member carried on an arch or a series of arches and a solid butress to which it transmits its lateral thrust

Cartoon

in painting, a full-size preliminary dramwing from which a painting is made

Chiaroscuro

in drawing or painting, the treatment and use of light and dark, especially the gradations of light that produce the effect of modeling

Clerestory

the fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts, in Roman basilicas and medieval churches, the window that formed the nave's uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vaults

Colonnettes

thin column often used for decoration or to support an arcade

Confraternity

in late antiquity, and association of Christian families pooling funds to purchase porperty for burial; in later medieval Europe, and organization founded by laypersons who dedicated themselves to strict regilous observances

Decorated style

English gothic architecture, rich ornamentation adn the use of ogees in arches and window tracery

Duomo

cathedral in Italy

Flamboyant

a late Gothic style of architecture superseding the Rayonnant style and named for the flame like appearance of its pointed bar tracery

Flashing

making stain glass windows, fusing one layer of coloered glass to another to produce a greater range of colors

Gables

triangular section of wall at the end of a pitched roof, occupying the space between the two slopes of the roof

Gargoyles

a grotesque ornamental figure or projection

Gesso

plaster like material for paint

Gothic

originally derogatory term named after the Goths (by Vasari) used to describe the history, culture, and the art of Western Europe in 12th-14th century

Grisaille

a monochrome painting done maintly in neutral grays to stimulate sculpture

Guild

an organization of persons with related interests, goals, especially formed for mutual aid or protection

Heretic

a professed believer who maintains religious opinions contrary to those accepted by his or her church or rejects doctrines prescribed by that church

International Style

adapted the French Cothic manner to Sienese art, appealed to aristocracy b/c of its brilliant color, lavish costume, intricate ornament, and themes involving procession of knights and ladies

Lancet

in Gothic architecture, the tall narrow window ending in a pointed arch

Leading

in the manufacture of stained- glass window, the joining of colored glass piecee using lead cames

Moralized Bible

a heavily illustrated Bible, each page pairing paintings of Old Testament episodes with explanations of their moeal signficance

Mullion

a vertical member that divides a window or that separates on window from another

Nave arcade

in basilica architecture, the series of arches supported by piers or columns separating the nave from the aisles

Oculus

the round center of a dome and a small round window in a Gothic cathedral

Palazzo

an impressive public building or private residence, palace

Pendant

the large hanging terminal element of a Gothic fan vault

Perpendicular style

English Gothic architecture, vertical style

Pinnacle

in Gothic churches, a sharply pointed ornament capping the piers or flying buttresses also used on church facades

Plate tracery

tracery which uses thick areas of stone to separate glozed areas. the window maybe look as if it has been filled w/ stone and there are small openings for the glass

Polyptych

an altarpiece made up of more than 3 sections

Predella

narrow ledge on which an altarpiece rests on an altar

Rayonnant

the radiant style of Gothic architecture, dominant in the second half of the 13th century and associated with the French royal court of Louis IX at Paris

Respond

an engaged column, pilaster, or similar element that either projects from a compound pier or some other supporting device or is bonded to a wall and carries one end of an arch

Rose window

a circular stained-glass window

Stigmata

in Christian art, the wounds that Christ received at his crucifixation that miraculously appear on the body of a saint

Tempera

paint in which an emulsion consisting of water, egg yolk, and sometime oil is used as a binder (medium)

Tracery

interlacing work of lines, like, as in the upper part of a Gothic window

Triforium

in a Gothic Cathedral, the blind arcaded gallery below the clerestory; occasionally the arcades are filled with stained glass

Tondo

a round painting relief, or similar work of art

Web

in Gothic architecture the masonry blocks that fill the area between the ribs of groin vault

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