The American Revolution Terms, Events and People

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General Edward Braddock (1695—1775)

A British general in charge of North American military actions during the begging of the French and Indian War. He is most famous for his leadership in the expedition in the Ohio area against the French at Fort Duquesne. The expedition was disastrous, costing him his life. Washington took command after he died.

General George Washington (1732—1799)

He was a leader in the French and Indian War. He surrendered to an attack on Fort Necessity, a fort he set up in response to the French fort in Pennsylvania. He later rejoined the military, joining Braddock's expedition against the French, which failed. He was put in charge of the Virginia militia in 1758. He later joined in John Forbes's mission on Fort Duquesne, which was victorious. He left the army in 1758 again and became a political leader in Virginia's House of Burgesses. He advocated against British colonial policies. Washington joined the army to fight the British during the American Revolution. He took office as the first president after independence in 1789.

General James Wolfe (1727—1759)

He joined the British army in 1742 at a young age. He was given the position of Major General by WIlliam Pitt of the expedition to capture Quebec, in which he lost his life.

William Pitt

One of England's most famous statesmen whose leadership led to substantial increases in English possessions and influences. He led Britain during the French and Indian War. He was also a Patriot, also known as a Whig.

Lord North (1732-1792)

Prime minister of Great Britain before and during the American Revolution. He tried to regain control of colonies by making an example of Massachusetts, but he was unsuccessful.

Charles Townshend (1725—1767)

British Chancellor of Exchequer (Treasurer) who enacted the Townshend Acts, a series of laws that put tax on luxury items such as glass, lead, paint, paper and tea.

George Grenville (1712—1770)

the First Lord of the Treasury and later became the Prime minister. He enacted the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act in an attempt to lower taxes in Britain itself.

Crispus Attucks (circa 1723—1770)

a son of an African and an Indian, he was a slave in Framingham. He escaped from slavery in 1750. He was the first person to be killed in the Boston Massacre.

John Adams (1735-- 1826)

served one term as the second president of the United States and two terms as Vice-president under George Washington. He and his cousin, were leaders in the American Revolution and the Federalist Party.

Samuel Adams (1722—1803)

signed the Declaration of Independence. He was also a governor of Massachusetts and a leader in the American Revolution. He was a constant source of trouble for the British, contributing to the start of many protests including the Boston Tea Party.

Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

A famous patriot writer as well as an American Soldier. His writings, such as Common Sense and The Crisis contributed to the furthering of the American Revolution.

William and Mary

The school was chartered by King ____ (1650—1702) and Queen _____ (1662—1694) of England. The King and Queen signed the English Bill of Rights, which greatly affected Britain in that it gave citizens more personal liberty and democracy. The Bill influenced colonists in North America as they revolted against the ruling of James II who proposed changes in the government of the colonies.

Thomas Hutchinson (1711-1780)

Governor of Boston beginning in 1769. He ordered the removal of British troops following the Boston Massacre. Because he was a proponent of British government in the colonies, although not of the Stamp Act, he caused tension between the loyalists and the patriots. He was exiled to Britain in 1774.

Thomas Gage

Governor of Massachusetts as well as a general in the British governor. He was a proponent of the Intolerable Acts and tried as hard as possible to enforce these laws. He was the one who ordered the raid on Concord that led to the Battle of Lexington and Concord. He was also the commanding officer at the Battle of Bunker Hill.

Paul Revere

(1734-1818) an American silversmith and patriot who was responsible for being the messenger in the battles of Lexington and Concord.

Ethan Allen

(1738-1789) farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, and politician. Best known as one of the founders of Vermont and the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga

Major Andre

(1750-1780) British army officer hanged as a spy during the Revolutionary War, assisted Benedict Arnold in the attempted surrender at West Point, New York

Jefferson

(1743-1826) Third president of the United States and principal author of the Declaration of Independence; one of the most influential founding fathers as well as a promoter of republicanism

Roger Sherman

(1721-1793) Early American lawyer and politician; first mayor of New Haven and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence; patriarch of a noble family

Franklin

(1706-1790) Printer, publisher, author inventor, scientist, and diplomat; delegate to Constitutional Convention and helped to draft Declaration of Independence. He also represented the United States in France during the American Revolution

William Patterson

(1745-1806) New Jersey statesman and judge of the Supreme Court. He also signed the Declaration of Independence and was the author of the New Jersey Plan; served on the Second Continental Congress until 1783

William Howe

(1729-1814) Commander in chief of the British army in North America for the first half of the war. active during the French and Indian War and became one of the most brilliant young generals. Despite several military attempts, he failed to destroy the American army and stem the American Revolution because of his laziness in Philidelphia.

John Burgoyne

(1722-1792) British general best remembered for his defeat by the American troops in Saratoga; elected to the House of Commons in 1761 and 1768; captured Fort Ticonderoga with his troops; forced to surrender at Saratoga due to his exhaust of food and ammunition

Dawes and Prescott

1) He (1745-1799) was one of the several men and women who alerted the colonial minutemen of the arrival of the British army troops prior to the battles of Lexington and Concord; went on midnight ride with Paul Revere.
2) He (1751-1777) was another one of the midnight riders who passed on the message of "The British are coming" after Revere had been captured by British troops. He was a famous Massachusetts Patriot during the Revolutionary War.

Nathaniel Greene

(1742-1786) Major general of the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War; began as a militia private (the lowest rank of the army), and then made his way up to George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer.

Richard Henry Lee

(1732-1794) came up with the resolution in the Second Continental Congress that led to the Declaration of Independence. Also came up with resolutions for creating foreign aid as well as a new government; elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and spoke out against the slave trade. He played an important role in the establishment of the Confederation government.

Phillip Schuyler

(1733-1804) General under George Washington. Initially blamed for a key patriot defeat but was later cleared. Delegate of the Continental Congress as well as later a member of the U.S. senate. Supported efforts of son-in-law Alexander Hamilton and other federalists to make sure that the U.S. Constitution was ratified.

Rochambeau

(1725-1807) French nobleman and soldier who played an important role in the American Revolution. Commander-in-chief of the French Expeditionary Force which came to help the American army. Commanded the Armeé du Nord, or the French "Army of the North" but was arrested during the Reign of Terror.

De Grasse

(1722-1788). He was a French Naval officer during the American Revolution, fighting on the American side, against the British. When the French and Americans joined sides during the Revolutionary War he was sent to America as a commander. 1779-1780 he fought the British in the West Indies, but left his post there in 1781 to help General Washington and General Rochambeau fight the British in the battle of Yorktown, which lead to the surrender of General Cornwallis.

Lafayette

(1757-1834). He was a French aristocrat who fought in the Revolutionary War with the Americans. He was promoted to general upon arriving in Philadelphia by the colonists. During his time in the war, he led the historic retreat from Barren Hill in May of 1778; he also contributed to the battle of Yorktown, which signified the end of the Revolutionary War in 1780. After the war he was called, "The hero of two worlds."

John Jay

(1745-1829). He was a founding father of the United States, and he became the first Supreme Justice in the new government (1789-95). He also negotiated the ___ Treaty with Great Britain, which settled any disputed with Britain and also promoted commercial prosperity. Before he became the Chief Justice he played a significant role in getting money from other countries to support the war, and also in the negotiations of various treaties, one being the Treaty of Paris in 1783.

Cornwallis

(1738-1805). Heplayed a significant role in the American Revolution as one of the more influencial military leaders. He is best known for his defeat and surrender at the Battle of Yorktown, basically ending the Revolutionary War, but he was also on the offensive side of the British for a long time.

George Rogers Clark

(1752-1818). He was a frontier military leader during the Revolutionary War. His successes were factors receiving the Old Northwest in the Treaty of Paris, the treaty that ended the war. During the war he also played a large part in relationships with the Shawnee Indians, along with other Indian tribes.

James Otis

(1725-1783). He was a political activist during the period leading up to the American Revolution, he helped put together the complaints the colonists had against the British government. He also sent many papers to the crown regarding the colonist rights, and also to the colonists to get them to join the cause.

Baron von Steuben

(1730-1794). He was a German officer who was a supporter of the American cause. He trained the misfit militiamen into trained soldiers, aiding the cause tremendously. He participated in the Battle of Yorktown, along with Washington, and Rochambeau.

Peyton Randolph

(1721-1775). He was the first president of the Continental Congress. He unlike many of his contemporaries, though, was not as radical and in fact did not agree with the way that the radical reaction of the colonists to the stamp act. Though he was the first president he was elected in 1774, and in 1775 he died of a stroke, leaving his moderate views behind to make way for the radical views of John Adams.

George III

(1738-1820). He was the king before during and after the Revolutionary War. His tax policies were considered harsh by the colonists. He had no expected a war with the colonies and believed that the colonies would eventually submit to British control.

John Dickinson

(1732-1808). He is often referred to as the "penman of the Revolution." He was a delegate of the Continental Congress, and was the primary writer of the "Declaration of Setting Forth..." He helped draft the Articles of the Confederation. Though he was very involved with the cause, he still hoped for reconciliation with the British and therefore voted against the Declaration of Independence.

Jonathan Boucher

(1738-1804). He was a famous American royalist and an English clergy man. He was once a tutor of Washington's stepson, but soon lost the post. He wrote a sermon where he emphasized the importance of loyalty, and dedicated the sermon to Washington, who responded with a friendly acknowledgement.

Charles Inglis

(1734-1816). He became the first Anglican clergyman in Canada, before that he was an educator and clergyman in Canada. He lived in new York for a while, but when it became evident that he supported the British, his church was burned and he was forced to move to Nova Scotia where he became the first Anglican clergyman.

Francis Marian

(1732-1795). He was a colonial soldier fighting for the American side. He was nicknamed the "Swamp Fox" by the British because of his sneaky guerrilla tactics that used the swamps in the surrounding area for surprise attacks. After the war he received recognition, was appointed brigadier general, and was in the senate.

John Paul Jones

(1747-1792). He was an American Naval hero who is best known for his defeat of the British in a naval battle just off the coast of England. After the war he received a congressional golden medal for his skilled victories.

General Clinton

(1730-1795). He was the British Commander in Chief during the American Revolution. After he fought in Bunker Hill he was left in charge while Howe went to Pennsylvania, after Howe retired he took his place. He then went on an army offensive in the Carolina's. He was blamed for the failure at Yorktown, instead of Cornwallis.

Lexington Concord

April of 1775
British troops tried to take colonial gunpowder along with Samuel Adams and John Hancock. British retook Boston. Start of the Revolutionary war.

Fort Ticonderoga

An important British fort in New York that held a large amount of gunpoweder and weapons. Americans led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold. Small American force surprised and captured fort and munitions. First major American victory during the war.

Bunker Hill

In what is generally seen as the first major attle of the Revolutionary war, the American were able to hold off multiple waves of British attacks before retreating. American troops greatly depleated British troops although it was a British victory.

Seizure of Charleston

Clinton moved south and captured the port of Charleston. British gained control of south.

Long Island/ White Plains

Summer and fall of 1776. Washington and new troops fought in New York against British. Americans completely outmaneuvered and barely escaped to Manhattan.

Trenton/Princeton

Washington led sneak attacks against Hessians during Christman celebration. He also, attacked small British detachment.

Brandywine

In southeastern Pennsylvania, the British fought the Americans. The goal was for the British to keep the Americans from reaching Philadelphia which had been left undefended. British troops easily routed the Americans but were not able to capture them or keep them from getting to Philadelphia.

Saratoga

Led by Benedict Arnold the americans forced the combined British, Brunswickers, Canadians and Indians to surrender. The victory by the Americans led to the involvement of both France and Spain on the side of the Americans, tipping the odds towards the patriots.

Germantown

Americans fought a combined force of British and Hessians. Although the British won the battle, they were unable to keep Washington's forces from retreating. They fell back to fortified positions.

Monmouth

Retreating British attacked by George washington in New Jersey. Many died from heatstroke, British escaped to NY and many Hessians deserted. No one is considered to have been victorious because where as the British were able to defend their baggage, the Americans also proved they could hold their own against the British.

Kaskaskia/Cahokia

on separate small raids, the Americans were able to take several forts west of the Ohio River without much opposition. Americans were able to eliminate these two British strongholds, which let them use the Mississippi.

Kings Mountain

American riflement attacked British troops in the Carolinas. Americans defeated teh British, able to turn the tide and move on to Cowpens.

Cowpens

The americans positioned themselves on two low-lying hills and were able to drive back the British. The Amerian victory broke the stalemate int he southern theatre of the war.

Guilford Court House

American militiamen were tactically outdueled by the Redcoast. The battle only lasted for about 2 and a half ours. Though the British won the battle, General Cornwallis' troops were greatly depleated. This battle led to the British abandonment of the Carolinas.

Yorktown

French Admiral de Grasse teamed up with Americans to atttack Cornwallis. French naval fleet blockaded port while George washinton surrounded fort. British surrendered.

Battle of Bunker Hill

right after the Battle of Breed's Hill in which the British overtook the Patriots because they ran out of ammo, The Patriots control on Bunker hill was lost ot the British. Many British soldiers were killed.

Joseph Brant

led the Mohawks who sided with the British during the Revolution.

Albany Plan of Union

a plan for permanant union of colonies. Each colony would have a rep in legislature which would then be watched over by a leader appointed by the british. Plan was denied.

Daniel Boone

a survivor of the French and Indian War. Famous for his exploits on the Kentucky frontier.

Marquis Montcalm

defended Quebec from the British

Pontiac's Rebellion

Indians in the Great lakes region rebelled against the British in the spring of 1763. This was in response to the general ending the flow of trade goods to the Indians which the Indians depended on.

Proclamation of 1763

closed western settlement to colonists because of the conflict between the Indians and the colonists. Put in place by King George. Ignored by colonists.

Stamp Act

tax on documents
stamp act riots occured. Stamp act congress formed.

Boston Massacre

March 5, 1770- a crowd who were opposed of the Townshend Acts threatened a squad of British soldiers. The Soldiers opened fire on the ground, leaving five colonists dead or dying in the snow. Crispus Attucks was among the dead.

First Continental Congress

Committees of Correspondence in several colonies called for a meeting to plan a united response to these developments. The first one took place on September 5th, 1774. All except Georgia attended.

Quatering ACt

required colonists to house and feed soldiers

Declatory Act

A statement of England's right to rule the colonies in any way it saw fit.

Townshend Acts

Tax on luxury goods.

Tea Act

British attempt to save the EIC by cutting out the middle man between the EIC and the colonists. Boston tea party as a result b/c colonists were still angry with British monopoly.

Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)

targeted Massachusetts. Closed Boston Harbor until colonists paid for the tea.

Jeffry Amherst

British General who despised Indians and put forth ended the trade they had become dependant on with the French.

Richard Jackson

Member of Parliament. He informed Ben Franklin by letter that Grenville planned to apply more taxes, on top of the normal duties that were already a huge burden.

Stamp Act Congress

organized by James Otis
No taxation without representation
propaganda group

Gaspee Incident

in his paranoia to stop smuggling, Lieutenant William Dudingston took supplies from legal ships without paying. Forced his ship to run aground when another ship lured him to an area.

Francis Marian

a colonial soldier fighting for the American side. He was nicknamed the Swamp Fox by the British because of his sneaky guerilla tactics that used the swamps in the surrounding area for suprise attacks.

Benedict Arnold

He was a patriot officer in the American army until 1779 when he was discovered as a spy for the British, bringing battle plans to them. He was a main player in the recapture of Ft. Ticonderoga along with Ethan Allen. He had many success in his pot, but when it came to promotions he was bypassed by his Juniors, this aggravated him and led him, eventually, to inform the British of an attack that the Americans weer going to lead. One of his co-conspirators was captured by the Americans during the battle, and was hanged while Benedict go away, and proceeded to live a horrible life due to his actions as a traitor of both sides.

St. Leger

fought for the British. Was suppose to meet Howe and Burgoyne in the three pronged attack to take back New England. Kept relations with native Americans.

Deerfield Massacre

a raid against British colonists in Massachusetts during Queen Anne's War by the French and their Indian allies. The raid resulted in the death of 50 people and the capture of 111 out of a population of around 300. Most of the town was then destroyed, although was later rebuilt by British troops after they were stationed there to protect the village. Negotiations led to the release of 60 captives.

Salem Witch Trials

nineteen men and women were hung after being accused of witchcraft.

Peace of Paris

a collection of treaties that ended the American revolution.

Fort Dusquene

a crucial fort that changed hands many times during the French and Indian war. controlled the Ohio, Allegheny and Monongahela rivers.

Comm. of Correspondence

Groups appointed by the 13 British colonies to provide colonial leadership and intercolonial cooperation. The first group was organized by Samuel Adams, and other important leaders include Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson.

Quebec Act

Act of the British Parliament to establish the government of Quebec with a governor and council while also preserving the French Civil Code, the system of land tenure, and the Roman Catholic Church. This was a response to the questions about Canada becoming a part of the British Empire in North America.

Writs of Assistance

Nonspecific search warrants issued by the American courts to assist the British government in enforcing trade and navigation laws. These gave customhouse officers the right to search any house of smuggled goods without stating what goods or which house. These writs did not arouse controversy until a renewal attempt was made in 1761.

First Continental Congress

Opened in Philadelphia and lasted seven weeks. Brought leaders from 12 of the 13 colonies (with the exception of Georgia) together in unified support in response to British actions. The Coercive Acts were said to be an attack on liberty itself, and in response, colonists organized a general meeting of colonial leaders. This congress endorsed the Declaration of Rights and Grievances.

Suffolk Resolves

Meetings protesting the Intolerable (Coercive) Acts enacted by the British Parliament in the same year. Delegates from Boston and the neighboring Suffolk County met to declare their refusal of the acts and the officials responsible for them. Urged citizens to boycott British goods and taxes. These requests were sent by Paul Revere to the 1st Continental Congress.

Olive Branch Petition

a petition sent by colonists to King George III in July 1775 requesting a compromise between the colonists and the British parliament. George never answered the petition and even claimed a rebellion of the colonists in August 1775. This fighting escalated and eventually led the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

Ticonderoga

Captured by the British in 1759 (during the French and Indian war) and was named ______. During the American Revolution, the Green Mountain Boys overran the fort in a surprise attack on May 10, 1775, seizing the artillery that Henry Knox had transported to Boston. John Burgoyne retook _____, but later abandoned it after the Battles of Saratoga.

Kaskaskia/Vincennes

An Italian fur trader, Clark, set out with 127 volunteers and set out for Vincennes, a recently British captured stronghold in Illinois. The settlers in Vincennes were still sympathetic to the American cause, and instead of warning the British of the army that was on its way, they instead made a silent rebellion against the British invasion. After much negotiation between the two sides, the British Gen. Hamilton surrendered to Clark, and became a prisoner of war.

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