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The Hypothalamus is small...how many ounces?

third

The Hypothalamus forms the floor and lateral walls of which ventricle?

hunger, thirst, sex

The Hypothalamus has vague control over basic drives such as...

physical aspects

The hypothalamus controls what aspects of emotional expression?

Autonomic, Endocrine

The Hypothalamus is in control of two major systems of the body, what are they?

Parasympathetic

This autonomic function increases digestive motility, decreases heart rate, and constricts the pupils

Sympathetic

This autonomic function increases heart rate and vasoconstriction, decreases digestive motility, and is responsible for pupil dilation, piloerection, and sweat gland secretions

neuron axon extensions

Direct Endocrine control into the posterior pituitary is via the __________

neurohormones

Indirect Endocrine control to release anterior pituitary hormones is via __________

Supraoptic, Paraventricular

The _________ and _________ nuclei send axons down through the infundibular stalk via the supraopticohypophyseal tract.

posterior pituitary

The supraopticohypophyseal tract terminates in the ________

oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

The Supraoptic and Paraventricular nuclei are both capable of releasing what two substances?

supraopticohypophyseal

The supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei send axons down through the infundibular stalk via the __________________ tract

oxytocin

Major actions includes uterine contractions, milk let down, and ejection.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Major action is water resorption (saves H2O)

Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN)

Responsible for our circadial (daily) 24-25 hour rhythms such as temperature, sleep, light, feeding, etc. Complexly connected to the pineal gland.

Anterior Nucleus

Nucleus that is generally known for its parasympathetic functions

Preoptic area (nucleus)

A thermoregulator, especially as the body heats up; stimulates sweating

Dorsomedial nuclei

Has a parasympathetic influence on the GI tract; fairly diffuse nuclei

Ventromedial nuclei

A center for eating and thirst gratification ("satiety center")

Arcuate Nuclei

Near the infundibular stalk of the intermediate area, contributes axons to the tuberoinfundibular tract.

Tuberoinfundibular

The Arcuate nuclei contributes axons to the ___________ tract.

anterior pituitary, releasing factors

The tuberoinfundibular tract secreates neurohormones that pass to the __________ by the way of the bloodstream and release pituitary hormones called ___________

Hypothalamic Hypophysiotropic Hormones

Another name for the "releasing factors"

Tuber cinereum

The undulating bulge between the infundibular stalk and the mammillary bodies.

Mammillary bodies

A nucleus important for short term memory.

Korsakov's syndrome

The loss of short-term memory from alcohol...associated with the mammillary bodies.

Anterograde

Amnesia where you don't remember anything after the incident.

Retrograde

Amnesia where you don't remember anything before the incident.

Confabulation

Invented memories to fill in the gaps

Posterior nuclei

A thermoregulator; especially as the body cools down...stimulating shivering (piloerection)

Hypothalamohypophyseal tracts

Tracts that includes the Supraopticohypophyseal tract and tuberoinfundibular tract...

Rathke's Pouch

Which area gives rise to the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) and intermediate pituitary?

bloodstream

The anterior pituitary must receive its hypothalamic influence via the _________

internal carotid arteries

Most blood to the pituitary and its infundibular stalk comes from the branches off the ___________

fenestrated sinusoids

Within the infundibular stalk the small arteries break into highly permeable capillaries called ____________

sinusoids

The ________ pick up releasing factors from the tuberoinfundibular tract fibers.

hypophyseal portal veins

A series of small veins drain the hormone-laden blood to the capillary beds of the anterior pituitary...what are these veins called?

pituitary hormones

Once the releasing factors enter the substance of the anterior pituitary they exert a controlling influence on the release of __________

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