chapter 5 bio vocab

30 terms by summersweethearts 

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organic molecule

carbon-based molecule

inorganic molecule

non-carbon-based molecule

hydrocarbon

organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms

functional group

group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules.

hydrophilic

attracts water molecules.

monomer

small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule

polymer

long chain of monomers

carbohyrdate

organic compound made of sugar molecules.

monosaccharide

sugar containing one sugar unit

disaccharide

sugar containing two monosaccharides

polysaccharide

long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers

starch

polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers

glycogen

polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers

cellulose

consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls.

lipid

one of a class of water-avoiding compounds

hydrophobic

avoids water molecules

fat

organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids

saturated fat

fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. fits together tightly.

unsaturated fat

fat with less than the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of its fatty acid chains

steroid

lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings

cholesterol

steroid molecule present in the plasma membranes of animal cells

protein

polymer constructed from a set of 20 amino acid monomers

amino acid

monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups

polypeptide

chain of linked amiono acids

denaturation

loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor

activation energy

minimum amount of energy required to trigger a chemical reaction

catalyst

agent that speeds up chemical reactions

enzyme

specialized protein that catalyzes the chemical reactions of a cell

substrate

reactant acted on by an enzym

active site

region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits

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