A period in European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which renewed interest in classical culture let to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world.
The traditions of ancient Greece and Rome that were appreciated and studied during the Renaissance.
Wealthy Italian family of bankers who dominated life in Renaissance Florence.
The ideal individual who strove to master almost every area of study; a man who excelled in many fields - praised as a "universal man"
Upper-class women who knew the classics; expected to inspire art but rarely to create it.
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
An education based on study of he traditions of ancient Greece and Rome.
A later period of the Renaissance that influence the writers and philosophers of northern Europe who adopted the ideal of humanism to their more religious views of life.
An imaginary land described by thomas More in his book utopia - hence, an ideal place.
Technology invented during the renaissance which made the production and distribution of books more widespread than during the Middle Ages.
Printed by Johann Gutenburg in 1455; printed in vernacular German.
A 16th-century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope's authority.
A member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation.
A member of the Roman Catholic church.
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters.
A pardon releasing a person from punishments due to a sin.
University of Wittenberg
German University where Martin Luther taught theology and where he posted his 95 Thesis.
St. Peters Basilica
The main church complex of the Catholic Church in Rome; designed by Michelangelo.
95 arguments written by Martin Luther as part of his demands for Church reform.
Act of Supremacy
Henry VIII made himself head of new Church of England and all had to recognize him as the new head.
Church of England
New protestant church created by Henry VIII as a result of the Act of Supremacy.
Elizabeth I of England adopted a policy of religious compromise between Protestants and Catholics; she remained a Protestant.
Spanish fleet sent in 1588 to invade England; destroyed by hurricane at sea.
Year that he Spanish fleet was destroyed while trying to invade England.
Age of Exploration
Period between 15th and 17th centuries when Europeans discovered new lands in Asia and the Americas.
The exchange of food crops, livestock, and disease (& people) between the Eastern and Western hemispheres after the voyages of Columbus.
The world hemisphere that includes Eurasia and Africa and Australia.
The world hemisphere that includes North America and South America.
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
joint stock company
A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits.
The creation of overseas colonies by European countries during the Age of Discovery.
Atlantic slave trade
The transportation of Africans as part of the mercantile triangular trade system in the Atlantic region between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
The voyage that brought captured Africans to the west indies, and later to North and South America, to be sold as slaves - so called because it was considered the middle leg of the triangular trade.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
gold and silver
The two primary metals desired by explorers and conquistadores during the Age of Discovery.
favorable balance of trade
"Unfair" or "Unbalanced" trade between colonies and mother country in which the favorable share of the balance went to the mother country.
The country from which colonists had been sent from; received raw materials and produced finished goods for shipment to colonies.
The transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West indies, and the colonies in the Americas.
The political theory that states that kings and queens have unlimited power and the right to control all aspects of society.
The idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and therefore answerable only to God.
"I am the state"
Phrase uttered by Louis XIv of france as part of his rule as an absolute king.
Louis XIV of France.
War of Spanish Succession
Fought between 1700-1713 by France and England; battles took place in Europe and north America.
French Protestants that were persecuted by Roman Catholics.
The palace of Louis XIV and later French Kings.
The body of representatives that makes laws for the nation of England.
Petition of Right
English legal document that protected subjects from the King: he could not imprison subjects without due cause, levy taxes without Parliament's consent, house soldiers in private homes, and impose martial law in peacetime.
English Civil War
1642-1649 - between Charles I and Puritans in Parliament.
Those who remained loyal to Charles I during the English Civil War.
Puritan supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War.
The period of Charles II's rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell's government.
A document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal.
The bloodless overthrow of the English King James II and his replacement by William and Mary.
A system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law.
English Bill of Rights
1689 - William and Mary of England agreed not to: suspend Parliament's laws, levy of taxes without a specific grant from Parliament, interfere with Parliament's freedom of speech, penalize citizens who petition the king about grievances.
Diplomats who accompanied peter the Great on his journey to western Europe in 1697.
Russian Orthodox Church
Byzantine, or Eastern Orthodox, influenced Church of Russia.
A system that rewards an individual based on their own talent and ability.
An adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western European countries; used by Russia's Peter the Great.
Cosimo de Medici
Early influential member of the Medici family of Florence.
Lorenzo de Medici (the Magnificent)
Grandson of Cosimo de Medici of Florence; a diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists, and poets.
Italian Renaissance artist who designed the dome atop the Cathedral of Florence.
Michelangelo di Lodovico
Italian Renaissance artist who carved the david and painted the Sistine Chapel.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian Renaissance artist and inventor who painted the Mona Lisa.
Italian Renaissance artist who painted the Madonna and Child and the School of Athens.
1509 wrote The Praise of Folly - book poked fun at greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests. Believed in a Christianity of the heart, not one of ceremonies or rules.
1516 wrote Utopia about an imaginary land inhabited by a peace-loving people, an ideal place. In Utopia, greed, corruption, war, and crime had been weeded out.
Wrote a comic adventure Gargantua and Pantagruel in vernacular French. Believed that human beings were basically good and should live by their instincts rather than religious rules.
English poet and playwright. He wrote 37 plays between 1590 and 1613. His plays reflect the ideas of individualism and the unconquerable human spirit, and most of them are still performed today.
Invented the printing press in Europe; printed the Bible in vernacular German.
German Monk who in 1517 started the Reformation against the Catholic Church.
Raised money to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome by selling indulgences; gave people the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way into heaven
Pope Leo X
Roman Catholic Pope who demanded that Martin Luther end his calls for reform.
Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor)
1500-1558 ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and much of the Americas.
Frederick the Wise
One of the most powerful early defenders of Martin Luther, Lutheranism, and the Protestant Reformation.
(1491-1547) King of England who transformed his country into a Protestant nation during the Reformation.
Catherine of Aragon
Wife of Henry VIII; divorced by Henry.
Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)
Daughter of Henry VII and Catherine of Aragon; Queen of England 1516-1558.
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; Queen of England 1533-1603.
Son of Henry VII and Jane Seymour; King of England 1537-1553
(1451-1506) Italian explorer working for Spain who, in 1492, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the Americas for Spain.
Vasco de Gama
(1469?-1524) Portuguese explorer who, in 1498, established an all water route to India.
(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
King of England 1600-1649; fought in the English Civil War - later executed.
Leader of the English Revolution that deposed the Stuart monarchs in favor of a short lived Republic. Cromwell acted as Lord Protector until the restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
Restored to the English thrown in 1660 after the death of Oliver Cromwell.
William (of Orange) and Mary
King and Queen of England from 1689 to 1702. They were placed on the throne as a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and ruled as limited monarchs.
Peter the Great
Czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government.
A system of governing based on absolute ruler by a person who wields power oppressively; an absolutist who is above the law.