APUSH Chapter 8 & 9 Terms

31 terms by frannnnkkiiieeeee 

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Federalists

Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.

Republicans

Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.

Hamilton's Financial Plan

The government would take the debt of the nations and the states debt, make a national bank, and tax higher (which was the only one that did not pass thru congress)

The Bank of the United States

Hamilton's Bill created this national establishment which produced heated debates about whether national government had authority to create it since this establishment wasn't mention in the constitution.

Tariffs

Taxes on imports or exports

Jay's Treaty

It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley

Jefferson as Secretary of State

a Federalist; strict construction; worked on domestic affairs; chosen because of his experience with France; did not trust new gov.

Washington's Farewell Address

Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.

John Adams

He was a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself

XYZ Affair

An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.

End of French Alliance

Treaty signed in Paris that ended France's peacetime military alliance with America. Napolean was eager to sign this treaty so he could focus his attention on conquering Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Lousiana. This ended the "quasi-war" between France and America.

Alien and Sedition Acts

Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

Midnight Judges

The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.

Jeffersonian Revolution of 1800

change of power from adams (fed) to jefferson (democratic republican) revolutionary without any bloodshed

Barbary Pirates

These were Muslim pirates operating from the coast of North Africa that hampered merchant shipping in the area by breaking treaties, attacking ships, and taking hostages/prisoners. The attacks prompted the build up of the U.S. Navy to stop the attacks

Marbury v. Madison

established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional' Judicial Review - the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional

Louisiana Purchase

territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million

Lewis and Clark

Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.

Chesapeake and Leopard Affair

1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology.

Embargo Act

Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.

War of 1812

Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (1812 - 1815). This ended with the Treaty of Ghent

Sectionalism

loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole

Impressment

British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.

Non-intercourse Act

it allowed Americans to carry or trade with all nations except for Britian and France

Macon's Bill #2

Reopened trade w/ Britain & France (only one or the other)

Andrew Jackson

A general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

Hartford Convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

Status Quo Antebellum

The term was originally used in treaties to refer to the withdrawal of enemy troops and the restoration of prewar leadership. When used as such, it means that no side gains or loses territory or economic and political rights

Essex Junto

New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. This group of people was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.

Battle of New Orleans

Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.

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