← Chemistry Exam Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Homogeneous A mixture with the same particles Heterogeneous A mixture with different particles Atom The smallest particle of an element Molecule Atoms linked together. The smallest particle of a compound. Element A pure substance made of the same atoms. Compound A pure substance made of the same molecules. Mixture An impure substance made of a combination of atoms, molecules, or both. Pure Substance Made of the same element or compound. As the temperature of matter increases... The mollecular motion increases and the molecular interractions decreases. Solids Move little Don't need a container Definite shape Definite volume Liquids Move easily Needs a container Indefinite shape Definite volume Gases Move rapidly Can fill a container Indefinite shape Definite volume You can compress a gas Plasmas Extreme amount of energy Electrons knocked off by collisions Most abundant state of matter!!! Kinetic Theory of Matter 1. All matter is composed of small particles. 2. The particles are in constant motion. 3. The particles are colliding with each other and their container. States of Matter Cycle Solid to Liquid- melting Liquid to Solid- freezing Liquid to Gas- evaporation Gas to Liquid- condensation Solid to Gas- sublimation (like dry ice) Atomic Mass Units (AMU) Roughly how much a part of an atom weighs: Protons= 1 AMU Neutrons= 1 AMU Electrons= 0 AMUs How do you calculate the number of neutrons? 1. Round the Atomic Mass to the nearest whole number. (This gives you the Mass Number) 2. Mass Number- Atomic Number= Number of Neutrons Isotopes An element with the same protons and electrons, but with extra neutrons. Isotopic Notation Cl OR Chlorine- 35 17 35 17 is the atomic # and 35 is the mass # The CLOSER an electron is to the nucleus, the _______ amount of energy it has. Less # of electrons per shells Shell 1= 2 electrons Shell 2= 8 electrons Shell 3= 18 electrons Shell 4= 32 electrons Periods Rows <----> Tell the number of electron shells the element has Groups Columns (Up and down) Tell how many electrons go in the outer shell (Valence Electrons) Bohr Diagrams Draws little rings around the nucleus with dots on them Properties of Metals Good conductors of heat and electricity Malleable React with water Properties of Nonmetals Poor conductors Not malleable Break easly Properties of Metalloids/Semi-conductors Conduct heat better than nonmetals, but worse than metals Transition Metals Have a variable number of VEs Ion An atom that has gained or lost electrons Ionic Bonds Metal+Nonmetal LOSE/GAIN VEs To write: Flip flop the oxidation numbers. Ex: Fe(III) O = Fe2O3 ALWAYS END IN -IDE Covalent Bonds Nonmetal+Nonmetal (Coworkers) SHARE VEs To write: DO NOT flip flop! Ex: Tribromine Tetraoxide = Br3O4 If the first element has only 1, don't use a prefix. Always use prefixes for the second element, however. ALWAYS END IN -IDE, TOO! Organic Compounds Covalently bonded Always have Carbon and Hydrogen Hydrocarbons Compounds made of only Carbon and Hydrogen C- Single bonds, called Alkanes C= Double bonds, called Alkenes C (3 lines) Triple bonds, called Alkynes 1 Meth 5 Pent 2 Eth 6 Hex 3 Prop 7 Hept 4 But 8 Oct Used for fuels Polymers Large organic molecules made up of bonded monomers PROTEINS are linked together by AMINO ACIDS in ENZYMES in tissue building. (Meat, beans) NUCLEIC ACIDS (controls reproduction of cells) are linked together by NUCLEOTIDES in DNA and RNA CARBOHYDRATES are linked by MONOSACHARIDES in STARCHES (rice, potatoes, pasta) LIPIDS (fats and oils) What is the difference between a CHEMICAL change and a PHYSICAL change? You can change the products of a physical reaction back into the reactants, but if there's a chemical change, you can't undo it! Law of Conservation of Mass 1. Matter cannot be created or destroyed (Therefore chemical equations should be equal) 2. The number of atoms in the reactants should equal the number of atoms in the products. Synthesis Reaction A+B=AB Decomposition Reaction AB--> A+B Single Replacement Reaction AB+C--> CB+A Double Replacement Reaction AB+CD--> CB+AD Combustion Reaction O2 + hydrocarbon --> CO2 + H2O + energy. Water and Carbon are always the products What can we do to make something dissolve faster? Increase the surface area (crush up the alka seltzer) Stir it Increase the temperature Increase the concentration Dilute Small amount of solute is dissolved in the solvent Concentrated Large amount of solute dissolved in solution Unsaturated Solutions Are able to hold more solute Saturated Solutions Can't hold any more solute Supersaturated Solutions Are holding more dissolved solute than it's able to. To do this, you have to heat up the solution Properties of Acids All contain hydrogen Produce Hydrogen (H) ions and Hydronium (H3O) ions Are electrolytes Are corrosive TASTE SOUR Properties of Bases Produce Hydroxide (OH) ions Are electrolytes TASTE BITTER Two different types of Bases Antacids (anti-acids) and Cleaners How can we tell if a substance is an Acid or a Base? Look at the formula. If there are Hydrogen or Hydronium ions, then it's an acid. If there are Hydroxide ions, then it's a base. Strength of Acids and Bases Depends on how completely a compound is pulled apart when dissolved in water. If the acid/base is STRONG, then the compound will totally seperate. If it's WEAK, then some will seperate and soem will not. pH The measure of concentration of H+ ions in a solution. The more H+ ions, the lower the pH The fewer H+ ions, the higher the pH As you approach neutral, the acids/bases weaken!!! Neutralization Bases can neutralize the effects of acids, and vice versa. If you eat a bunch of Italian food (acidic), take a Tums (base) to neutralize the effects. Acid + Base ---> H2O and a salt Polyatomic Bonding END IN -ATE or -ITE Ex: Barium Nitrate = Ba(N)3)2 You DO flip-flop! Keep the -ates and -ites from the polyatomic atoms if it's last, but if it's first, then put -ide at the end of the elements.