land bridge that the Siberians used to reach Alaska 12,000-15,000 years ago
First agricultural revolution; the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement
In 1519, Cortes and 800 men landed on the coast of Mexico in Vera Cruz to conquer the Aztec empire.
All goods transferred between the colonies and Europe. The biological exchange of animals such as horses and pigs. New crops such as wheat and grain, potatoes and tomatoes, and rice. Also diseases such as smallpox and syphilis.
Aztecs have big empire in Tenochtitlan. Large & hierarchal community Lake Texcoco, Chiampas Aztecs do human sacrifices.
Largest city in North American w/ 200,000 inhabitants
Established sprawling empire in the New World
In 1531, he led a band of soldiers down the Pacific coast from Panama toward Peru, where they brutally subdued the Inca Empire
System transferred to America by Spaniards in which favored officers become privileged land owners. They're expected to protect and care for Indian villages.
Removal of the moors; Released from Grenada
Treaty of Tordisillas
1494; Drew lines for territory dispute between Portugal & Spain, East: Portugal, West Spain.
a small, fast Spanish or Portuguese ship of the 15th-17th centuries; A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic. (p. 427)
Atlantic Slave Trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. The MIddle Passage of the Triangular Trade; Posts in India & Southeast asia; 9-12 million Africans and the majority went to Caribbean for sugar plantations
First Europeans to reach North America
Located in present day Mexico and Central America, first Native American civilizations did not emerge in river valleys., This early civilization was based on sedentary agriculture and the cultivation of corn and food production.
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.
Prince Henry the Navigator
a member of the Portuguese royal family who hoped to acquire gold for Portugal and start a Crusade against the Muslims in Africa. He is thought to have founded a school of sailing and navigation in Sagres. His navigators began a series of explorations westward into the Atlantic and southward along the west coast of Africa in 1418.
Native American culture flourishing in southern Colorado and Utah and Northern New Mexico and Arizona of cliff dwellings (pueblos) and ecpert artisanship; lacked a rigid class structure; lived in "four corners."
Coureurs de bois
(runners of the woods) French fur traders, many of mixed Amerindian heritage, who lived among and often married with Amerindian peoples of North America.
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)
Cahokia (Mound Builders)
a large city that were once inhabited by the Mound Builders. It was filled with mounds, which were like graves, Declined in 13th century CE. At hieght had a population of about 30,000 people and contact with parts of Mesoamerica. Located in modern day east ST. Louis with a administrative capital that covered almost 300 acres. Had huge burial mound that was 98 ft tall with a base larger than the Egyptian pyramids.