the balance of power between the national and state governments
checks and balances
the ability of each branch of government to exercise control over the other branches
seperation of powers
the division of basic government roles into branches in order to limit the power of the federal government
Document which outlines a framework for our government based upon popular sovereignty and representative democracy
to give something offical approval
a government in which people elect representatives to govern them
the law-making body of the government
the law-enforcing body of the government
the law-interpreting body of the government
a process the supreme court uses to review the laws and acts of other branches and the states to determine their constitutionality
the process of accusing a public offical of wrong-doing
powers reserved only for the national government. includes the powers to coin money , declare war, establish an army and navy, regulate trade between states and foreign nations, and make laws necessary to carry out delegated powers
powers that are allowed both states and the federal government. includes the powers to enforce laws, establish courts, borrow money, protect the health and safety of the people, and collect taxes
powers held only by state governments includes powers to conduct elections, establish schools, regulate businesses, establish local governments, regulate marriage, and assume the powers not given to the national government or denied the states.
powers listed in the Constitution given to the national government
Bill of Rights
the first ten ammendments to the US constitution, added in 1791, to protect the rights of individual citizens and limit the right of the government. Added to satisfy the concerns of the Anti-federalists. .
Articles of Confederation
first government of the United States. Failed primarily because the federal government lacked the power to enforce laws, collect taxes, and regulate trade. States held most power
a legal order prohibiting people from being held in prison or jail without formal charges of a crime.
latin- " I forbid", to vote against - when the president refuses to sign or approve a bill
when a bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within ten days before Congress adjourned,
Enacted in 1787, one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system settling the western territories so they could eventually become states on an equal footing with the original 13 states
a violent uprising of about 1500 debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers - governments inability to control rebellion highlighted problems with Articles of Confederation
a meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation, resulting in the constitution being drafted
a formal change to the Constitution which allows the document to adjust over time to changes in society
due process of law
principle in the 5th Amendment stating that the government must follow proper constitutional procedures in trials and in other actions against individuals
a supporter of the constitution
a person apposed to the ratification of the US constitution, and wanted a bill of rights to be added.
the three-fifths compromise
the constitutional convention's agreement to count the three fifth's of a state's slave population for purposes of representation in the census
the Great compromise
t Compromise in which the larger states were provided representation by population in the House of Representatives, and the smaller states were appeased by the equal representation in the Senate.
the "elastic clause"
Congress can make "all laws necessary and proper" to carry out their constitutional powers.
the commander of the continental army, the first president of the US, and one of the members of the committee that drafted the US constitution, considered the founder of our nation.
wrote some of the Federalist Papers, later Secretary of the Treasury in Washington's cabinet.
necessary and proper clause
Part of the Elastic Clause/Implied Powers. Used to increase national government powers.
the electoral college
the method we use to elect the president of the US, 538 votes available and 270 needed to win. if there is a tie, then the top three candidates are voted on by the house of representatives. the system was created because the founding fathers didn't trust the common man to choose the leader.
the highest federal court in the United States
Marbury v. Madison
established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'
latin: you have the body. protects against meaningless imprisonment of people, protects citizens.
Advisors to the president. the original: secretary of state, secretary of treasury, secretary of defense, attorney general. now includes 18 members, newest is homeland security.
commander in chief, chief diplomat, chief of state, chief legislator, chief of law enforcement, chief guardian of the economy
exclusive senate powers
they have the sole power to try all impeachments, advise president to make treaties and appoint ambassadors.
powers of congress
collect taxes, borrow money, regulate commerce with other nations, coin money, declare war, control armed forces, make necessary laws (elastic clause)
principles of the constitution
popular sovereignty, republicanism, federalism, separation of powers and checks and balances, limited government, individual rights.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court - appointed in 1801, created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many decisions that expanded the power of the federal government and the Supreme Court
The speech was Washington's farewell letter that was written by Hamilton and published in newspapers It warned against permanent alliances and political parties.
an example that may serve as a basis for imitation or later action
Author of Declaration of Independence, 3rd president of US and Secretary of State under George Washington
a group of individuals with common concerns who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy
having someone in government speak for you
Gibbons v. Ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government