Most famous intellectual writer of his time period: In praise of folly.
Most of his ife attached to the royal court; died because of religious beliefs.
Jacques lefeure d'etables
Wrote 5 interpretations of the book of psalms.
Francesco ximeres de cismeros
leading cardinal in the catholic curch
Northern Renaissance Artsits
Jon Van Eyck, Peter Brueghel, Albrecht Purer, Hans Holbein
What is the difference between Northern Humanism and Italian Humanism?
Northern: More focused on christain beliefs
Italian: More focused on the people/ pupils becoming doctors, idealogists ,etc.
Spain Leaders: Did what?
Fernand: United spain, Reconquista. *Take Back Spain*
Diet of Worms
1521; Martin Luther, Frederick Protets marin Luther. Diet of worms directly related to Edict of Worms.
Lutheran Movement *What Is Lutherism*
Salvation through faith alone; only one religious authority: The bible
2 forms of eucharist
Transubstantiation: Literal consumption of christ
Consubstantation: Symbolic of Christ
League of Schmalkadin
1531; association of princes in Northern part of Europe.
Groups created from Calvinism
Presbyterian, Quakers Etc.
Peace of Augsburg
Lutherism and Catholicism allowed
in defence of the seven sacramets
'defender of the faith' was the nickname
wrote Utopia a perfect england, pointing out all the flaws
42 articles on religion
Act of Supremacy
1534, King of england is now head of church
Considered greatest queen of england; encourages Renaissance
Critics of the church, Corruption of the church
Decline of prestige papacy
Treaty of Cateau; Hapsburg vs. Valois
HRE is internaly weak
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
Center of Government
French Civil Wars
after Henry II died there was a power struggle between three noble families for the Crown. Many nobles who had converted to Calvinism wanted to gain independence from the crown, resulting in feudal disorder. At least nine wars occured in the late 1500s as a result.
Edict of Nantes
1598; Grants religious toleration to hugonauts
30 Years War
(1618-1648) This Bourbon vs. Habsburg War resulted from a conflict between the Protestant Union and the Catholic League in the Holy Roman Empire
4 Phases of the 30 Years War
Tells france to keep HRE divided
Traty o West Phalia
1648 Protestants victorious
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Causes for Exploraton
Desire for new route to asia
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
Jean Baptiste Colbert
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Petition of rights
List of demands from Parliament
English Civil War
Cavaliers VS. Roundheads
Rule Without King
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange
German state which led the unification movement and was the most powerful portion of the newly-created Germany.
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method