What is the difference between Northern Humanism and Italian Humanism?
Northern: More focused on christain beliefs
Italian: More focused on the people/ pupils becoming doctors, idealogists ,etc.
Diet of Worms
1521; Martin Luther, Frederick Protets marin Luther. Diet of worms directly related to Edict of Worms.
Lutheran Movement *What Is Lutherism*
Salvation through faith alone; only one religious authority: The bible
2 forms of eucharist
Transubstantiation: Literal consumption of christ
Consubstantation: Symbolic of Christ
Critics of the church, Corruption of the church
Decline of prestige papacy
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
French Civil Wars
after Henry II died there was a power struggle between three noble families for the Crown. Many nobles who had converted to Calvinism wanted to gain independence from the crown, resulting in feudal disorder. At least nine wars occured in the late 1500s as a result.
30 Years War
(1618-1648) This Bourbon vs. Habsburg War resulted from a conflict between the Protestant Union and the Catholic League in the Holy Roman Empire
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
Jean Baptiste Colbert
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange
German state which led the unification movement and was the most powerful portion of the newly-created Germany.