persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution, designed to protect individual citizens from the federal government
Judiciary Act of 1789
it organized the Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and five associate justices, as well as the federal district and circuit courts and established the office of attorney general
Report on Public Credit
This was the first of three major reports on economic policy issued by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton on the request of Congress. The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States. Hamilton proposed a remarkable set of policies for handling the debt problem. All debts were to be paid at face value. The Federal government would assume all of the debts owed by the states, and it would be financed with new U.S. government bonds paying about 4% interest.
funding at par
it meant that the federal government would pay off its debts at face value with interest
a person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
A person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
a 1794 protest in Pennsylvania caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
Franco-American Alliance of 1778
Bound the US to help French defend their West Indies against future foes
French minister to the US, broke rules of diplomacy by appealing directly to Americans
Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
No entangling alliances, Stay out of their problems, need to grow stronger economically, militarily, and politically before we get involved,Helps pay off economy, allows for open trade
A treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney's Treaty with the Spanish.
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Quasi War with France
Undeclared sea war fought between France and the U.S. between 1798 and 1800
Convention of 1800
Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
This man was used by Jefferson to produce scurrilous papers and pamphlets about the Federalists, especially Adams
was the first person to be put to trial for violating the acts on charges of criticizing Federalist president John Adams and disagreeing with Adams' decision to go to war against France. Lyon was sentenced to four months in jail and ordered to pay a $1,000 fine and court costs. While in jail, Lyon won election to the Sixth Congress. In the election of 1800 Matthew Lyon cast the deciding vote for Jefferson after the election went to the House of Representatives because of an electoral tie.