Macroevolution

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Macroevolution is the phenomenon of _______ over _________ _____

evolution, geologic time

Macroevolution is observed at the ________ level

species

In Macroevolution, species...

...arise from others through transformation (descent w/modification)

Macroevolution relies on _____, ___________ analysis, and ___________ or clades.

fossils, molecular, phylogenies

The biological species concept says that...

...species can interbreed w/viable offspring

Gene flow maintains ______ w/in species

similarities

Reproductive isolation prevents ___ ___, which leads to ______ _______, or differing species.

gene flow, genetic divergence

Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms include (5)

1 Geographic barriers
2 habitat isolation
3 seasonal/temporal
4 behavioral
5 hybrid inviability/infertility

All RIMS act to STOP ____ ____, which is necessary to _______ the _______ of a species.

gene flow, maintain, integrity

The ecological species concept says that species...or...

...interbreed but maintain species boundaries,
...or don't interbreed btwn species but maintain species coherence

The ecological species concept emphasizes the ____ for ________ ________s to change...

need, selective pressure
...gene makeup

The ecological species concept was developed to decrease emphasis solely on __________.

interbreeding

What are 3 ways we can categorize nature?

1 morphologically
2 gene flow
3 genetic relatedness

Morphological similarities refer to similar ________, or ____________al similarities

phenotypes, behavioral

Speciation:

process through which new species are formed, arise

The 2 issues (for anthro's) with speciation are:

1. need fossil records, too slow to observe in geological time scale
2. occurs too quick to detect in fossil record

Speciation events are indicated on cladograms by:

nodes

Microevolution influences speciation through 4 methods (i.e. mechanisms of change)

1. gene flow
2. natural selection
3. genetic drift
4. mutation

Microevolution, in light of speciation, occurs over a very ____ ____ of time

long period

Natural selection affects speciation through ______ ________ affecting _______ _______

specific pressures, reproductive success

The 2 models of speciation are:

1. Allopatric
2. Parapatric

Allopatric speciation = _____ __________ + __________ __________

geographic separation + directional selection

In allopatric speciation, there is no ____ ____

gene flow

Directional pressures in allopatric speciation emphasize the fact that ________ have the highest ________, because different __________s lead to different advantages.

extremes, fitness, phenotypes

An example of directional selection extremes include _____ fish and _______ fish

bland/plain, spotted

Parapatric speciation = ___ ___ + ____ ________ ________

gene flow + strong directional selection

There IS ___ ___ present in parapatric speciation

gene flow

In parapatric speciation, there is selection AGAINST _____s

hybrids

There are 4 theories of how macroevolution works:

1. Gradualism
2. Punctuated Equilibrium
3. Successive Speciation
4. Adaptive Radiation

______ theorized Gradualism, which stated...

Darwin
...species evolve at a slow, steady rate

_________ states that species evolve at a _____ rate, resulting in _______ change

Gradualism
linear
progressive

Punctuated equilibrium states that species...

...remain unchanged, and then undergo rapid & major change

Punctuated equilibrium is due to _________ ________s

environmental changes

Successive speciation states that...

...one single population has been breeding for many generations

Successive speciation involves 2 things:

1. many adaptive mutations
2. progressive change in the entire population

Successive speciation results in __________

anagenesis

Adaptive radiation states that a species...

...diversifies to fit available niches

Niche:

patterned resource exploitation by a species

In adaptive radiation, speciation depends on the ________ of available ______s.

number, niches

Adaptive radiation results in ___________.

cladogenesis

There have been _ major extinctions in the fossil record

5

Mass extinctions influence future speciation, specifically through the method of adaptive radiation, by leaving many ______s __________ed.

niches, unoccupied

There are 2 basic ways to classify, or taxonomize animals:

1. Phenetic
2. Cladistic

Phenetic grouping groups based on similar ________s.

phenotypes

________ grouping does not always overlap with _________ relationships.

phenetic, evolutionary

Phenetic grouping is based on _________ traits

analogous

Analogous traits:

the acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages

Cladistic grouping is based on ________ traits

homologous

Homologous traits:

the acquisition of similar traits due to shared ancestry

Cladistic grouping does so by _________ categories

evolutionary

Tree of life = _________

___ __ ____ = Phylogeny

Phylogeny:

the arrangement of species that share common ancestor

Phylogeny is the application of ________

_________ is the application of cladistics

The Great Tree of Life video used the method of __________ speciation

allopatric

The Great Tree of Life video used the example of __________ _________s leading to __________s resulting in purple bunnies

The Great Tree of Life video used the example of selective pressures leading to mutations resulting in _______ _________s

In the Great Tree of Life video, there was a massive _______ resembling human flesh.

In the Great Tree of Life video, there was a massive flower resembling _______ ______

The fossil record is ________, with always more _______ _____ than known ones

The fossil record is incomplete, with always ____ missing links than ____ ones

Fossilization is quite ____

_________________ is quite rare

Fossils are _____ not _____

______ are stone not bone

The number of fossils discovered come from all different parts during a ________'s ____________.

The number of _______discovered come from all different parts during a specie's development.

There are many evolutionary _____ ____s in the process of speciation because it involves working with ____ events.

dead ends, rare

only __% of fossil species are known

20%

Phylogeny and evolution often ___________ with each other, which hinders our ability to know which _____ are our ancestors

__________ and evolution often interfere with each other, which hinders our ability to know which fossils are our _________s

what represents dead ends in a cladogram?

the discontinuation of branching, or nodes

what do the branches in a cladogram represent?

lineal ancestors

An example in class of there being many different ways something can fit into a phylogenetic tree was _______ _____

ardipithecus ramidus

Filling in phylogenetic relationships involves ________ _________

Filling in __________ relationships involves evolutionary biology

Neanderthal DNA is now __% sequenced

__________ DNA is now 20% sequenced

some scientists believe the Neanderthals were an ___________ ____ ___

some scientists believe the ____________s were an evolutionary dead end

_________ tell us much about what it means to be human

primates tell us much about what it means to be ________

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