General Edward Braddock
He was a British soldier and commander-in chief of the British, during the start of the French and Indian War. He is remembered for the disastrous expedition against the French in the Ohio County area, where he lost his life. Also, he is remembered for being a mentor to George Washington. When he died, he gave Washington his ceremonial sash, which Washington kept with him when commanding the continental army, and when in office serving as president.
served in the militia of the British province of Virginia during the French and Indian War; sent as an ambassador from the British to trade with the French in Erie Pennsylvania; opened fire on them and started what was known as the first military step of the French and Indian War; became commander of the Virginian regiment when Braddock died; as many know, was the dominant military and political leader of the United States of America from 1775-1795, leading the American victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War, as the commander in Chief of the Continental Army. He helped write the constitution in 1787, and was unanimously elected to serve as the United States of America's first president.
General James Wolfe
British army officer; known for his training reforms but remembered mainly for his victory over the French in Quebec Canada, which made him famous back home in England.
British Whig who achieved fame by leading the British in the Seven Years War, Pittsburg Pennsylvania is named after him
Fredrick North, Lord North
Was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770-1782; he led Great Britain through most of the American Revolutionary War. He also held a number of cabinet positions, such as Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Member of British parliament well known for passing the Townshend Acts; demanded taxation of colonists to improve Parliament, Began the American Board of Customs to improve efficiency in revenue collection; famous for his "witty" speeches to parliament.
(Brother-N-Law of William Pitt), British Whig statesmen who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain; his government tried to bring public spending under control, and pursued an assertive foreign policy, his most famous policy was the Stamp Act; had a strained relationship with his colleagues, which eventually led to his dismissal.
Was the first martyr of the American Revolutionary War; little background information is known about him except he, along with Samuel Gray and James Caldwell died on the spot at the incident; known as the first black man to play a heroic role in the history of the United States.
Cousin of Sam Adams who also lived in Boston; was a Harvard graduate; an American statesman, diplomat, and political theorist; he was a delegate from Massachusetts in the Continental Congress, he played a leading role in making Congress lean towards departing from Britain and becoming and independent nation; he was a great negotiator and helped negotiate a peace treaty with Great Britain
Was an American statesman, philosopher, and one of the main Founding Fathers; cousin of John Adams, also a Harvard grad, he was unsuccessful in everything he did except for politics, he became a tax collector, and saw the unfair ways of the British government; he became very resistant, and was the first to propose a Continental Congress; he was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence
was a radical propagandist, and voiced loudly for the common man; was a journalist in Philadelphia were he created works like "Common Sense" he attacked the British monarchy even though he had only been in America for less than a year; he was convinced that America was unconquerable
William and Mary
signed the English Bill of Rights and began new cooperation between the Parliament and its Monarchs; their Bill of Rights inspired the colonists in America also to write their own form of Bill of Rights
loyalist governor of Massachusetts 1771-1774; unpopular among colonists because he did not publicly oppose Parliament; became a symbol of Loyalism
commander in chief of British forces in America 1763- 1775; military governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1774; failed to resolve the Siege of Boston and was sent back to Europe (replaced by William Howe)
known for his role as a messenger in the battles of Lexington and Concord (warned the Americans that the British were coming); part of the Penobscot Expedition
patriot leader of the "Green Mountain Boys" who helped to gain independent statehood for Vermont
a general who began the war in the Continental Army but then switched to the British side after his secret negotiations were exposed
a spy who assisted Benedict Arnold in his attempt to sell out West Point; he was hung at 31
principal author of Declaration of Independence; known for his idea of the US as an "Empire of Liberty" to promote republicanism and counter British imperialism; supported separation of church and state; leader of Democratic-Republic Party; wartime governor of Virginia
the only person to sign the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution
became famous in science for his discoveries regarding electricity and for his numerous inventions; earned title of "First American" for his support of colonial unity; spearheaded the effort to have Parliament repeal the Stamp Act; was key in developing a good relationship with France; served as the governor of Pennsylvania for 3 years; prominent abolitionist
became one of the first senators and governors of New Jersey; served as a justice of the Supreme Court; took part in the Constitutional Convention
Commander-in-Chief of British forces in America during the Revolutionary War; known for his leadership in British victories at the Battle of Bunker Hill and in the capture of NYC and Philadelphia
British general who surrendered 5,000 men to the Americans during the Saratoga campaign; he failed to capture Albany, which was supposed to end the rebellion
Dawes and Prescott
They were two of the riders on horseback who were sent to alert the Minutemen to come to the defense of the colony. This occurred on April 18-19, 1775. One of them took a route that forced him to sneak past the British guards at the Boston Neck, which he did so successfully, met up with Revere who had taken a different route to Lexington. The other joined both men at Lexington
(1742-1786) he was born in Rhode Island, where he later grew up to serve in the Rhode Island assembly and in 1775 was elected the commander of the local militia. Upon hearing about the breakout of the Battle of Lexington and Concord, he sent his men to the Boston area. Soon after, he was made the commander of Boston during the British withdrawal in 1776. In August of that year, he was promoted to Major General. He was assigned the responsibilities of Fort Washington and Fort Lee. He then continued on to serve at Trenton, Brandywine Creek, Germantown, and Valley Forge. In 1780, he replaced Benedict Arnold as the commander at West Point. After he stopped going out to war, he stayed very involved with the war efforts.
Richard Henry Lee
is known as one of the best orators from the Revolutionary Era, during which he played many pivotal roles in the drive for independence. He was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1758, where he advocated an end to the slave trade. He was very involved in the rebuttal of the Stamp Act 1765, and he, along with his brothers, created the Westmoreland Resolves, a statement where prominent citizens threatened action against those that cooperated with the Stamp Act. In 1774, he was named a delegate of the First Continental Congress, where he was a leader in the enforcing of the no importation agreements, and later the Second Continental Congress.
he was a general during the American Revolution. He also served as a Senator for New York. Before the war, he was elected to the Continental Congress in 1775, and he later served two more sessions in 1779 and 1780. During the war, he was appointed Major of the Continental Army, during which he directed the Invasion of Canada. General Horatio Gates replaced him because he was accused of dereliction of duty. He was vindicated of these charges, but resigned from the army on April 19, 1779.
Lieutenant General Comte de Rochambeau
(July 1, 1725-May 10, 1807) he was the commander of the French land forces in North America. He came to help the American Continental Army. In July of 1781, after a year of being inactive in Rhode Island, he and his troops marched across Connecticut to join Washington and his troops. The combined forces led the siege of Yorktown and the Battle of the Chesapeake. He, along with other French troop groups, surrendered on October 19.
(September, 13 1722-January 11, 1788) was a French Naval Commander who fought in the American Revolution. Late in his career, he was sent to American and was put in charge of a squadron, with which he fought the English off of the West Indies from 1779-1780. George Washington requested the cooperation of his fleet in the taking over of Chesapeake Bay. He blocked the British on the coast.
Marquis de Lafayette
(1757-1834) was a French soldier who came to America secretly to fight the British. He came to America on June 13, 1777, hoping to aid the American cause of democracy and liberty. Congress commissioned him a Major General on the 31st of July, and he went to Valley Forge with Washington in 1777. He stayed a devoted friend of Washington until Washington's death.
he served in the first continental congress in 1774, the second continental congress in 1775 and in the New York convention. In 1777, he was appointed the Supreme Court justice of New York. He was largely in favor of the new constitution. In 1789, he was appointed the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He ended his political career governing New York form 1795-1801.
(1738-1805) was English and his first military experience came from serving in the Seven Year's War. During the 1760s and early 1770s, he spoke out against the harsh laws that the British were imposing on her American colonies. He is known for being one of the most notable British commanders during the Revolutionary War, for he won many battles. However, he is also known for his great failure at the Battle of Yorktown.
George Rogers Clark
(1752-1718) he fought in the Revolutionary War on the side of the Americans. During the Independence War, he fought on the Western front, battling Indians and the British. He continued to fight on the west long after the fighting had ceased on the East. The high point of his western military campaigns came in the winter of 1779, when, in a daring 210-mile, 18-day march with 170 men, he retook Fort Sackville near Vincennes, from Henry Hamilton, Lieutenant Governor of Canada with a tricky tactic of creating an illusion that there were thousands of men by waving thousands of flags.
Son of prominent Massachusetts political figure (with the same name), he was a highly respected lawyer in Boston, Massachusetts.He began his career as a Loyalist but soon converted to the Patriot side. After losing to Thomas Hutchinson for the position of Chief of Justice in 1761, he resigned his position in vice-admiralty court. In response he represented Boston in a fight to prevent the renewal of authority for the writs of assistance, arguing the rights for the colonists. Although he lost, his efforts put the colonists rights on status and soon everyone was fighting for them.
Baron von Steuben
He was born in Magdeburg, Germany and was raised in a family that was military oriented. When Steuben was 17 he was a Prussian officer for the Prussian military. He led the Prussian army in the Seven Years War in 1756-1763 and was part of the staff connected to Frederick II the Great. He was also a leader at Valley Forge in 1777-1778 where he was adamant of creating and training a strong and ideal army. His ideal army became the Continental Army where he was credited for teaching them the essentials of military drill and discipline.
Born in Williamsburg, Virginia, he became a representative of the House of Burgesses for Williamsburg in 1748. He was later appointed to represent Virginia's cause to the Crown authorities in London. Because of his hard work and leadership in the House of Burgesses, he was elected as presiding officer in both the First and Second Continental Congresses
He was the King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760-1820 and the British monarch of the House of Hanover. He led the conquest of an empire in the Seven Years' War, and was responsible for the loss of the American Colonies in the War of Independence.
From Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he was an American lawyer, politician, and a militia officer during the American Revolution. He was also a Continental Congressman, a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, President of Delaware and President of Pennsylvania.
He was an English clergyman, teacher and philologist who believed the Stamp Act was "oppressive, impolitic, and illegal". In other words, he felt it was thoughtless and unfair. He was known as a royalist in America
He was an Anglican clergyman in America who actively embraced England's position in the struggle with the colonies. He refused to ignore the prayers for the king of Britain, and his True Interest of America Impartially Stated written in 1776 and other pamphlets as well as his letters to the press were strongly Loyalist.
John Paul Jones
Known as the "Father of the American Navy", he was the first well-known naval fighter for the Americans during the Revolutionary War. He also served for the Russian army.
He was a British army officer and politician. He was a general for the British during the American War of Independence or as we commonly know as the Revolutionary War. He was also a Member of Parliament and the Governor of Gibraltar.
Nicknamed "The Swamp Fox"; he was a military official for the British during the Revolutionary War. He represented the Continental Army and the South Carolina militia commissions.
Salem Witch Trials
They were a series of hearings before a local magistrate that prosecuted people accused of witchcraft between February 1692- and May 1693 from the counties Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex. Over 150 people were arrested and imprisoned; five died in prison.
French and Indian War
It occurred for seven years 1754-1761 (where it got its nickname The Seven Years War) between the British and the French (who were assisted by the Native Americans). The war was fought along the British Frontiers, and the Great Lakes Region. The French lost to the British, and were forced to give up much of their land along the Mississippi Valley.
Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress proposed this/it in 1754 in Albany, New York. It is significant because it was a documented attempt at forming a union of colonies under one government as a purpose of defense, during the French and Indian War. Copies of the plan were sent to British, but were rejected.
Peace of Paris
also known as the Treaty of Paris and the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10th, 1763. It ended the French and Indian War, and marked an extensive period of British Dominance outside of Europe.
this occurred in 1763 between a loose confederation of Native American tribes and a British soldiers and colonists. The Native Americans led by Ottawa leader Pontiac, attacked the British forts and settlements, in attempt to drive them back east closer to the colonies. The attacks occurred in the Great Lakes Region near Illinois and Ohio.
Proclamation of 1763
issued October 7th, 1763 by King George III following Britain's acquisition of French Territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War; the British were running low on money since they spent much on the war, so bringing the colonists closer to the east would make it possible for them to collect their tax money, which would increase the worth of Britain. Also the Proclamation was designed to keep the colonists safe and out of trouble with the revolting Native Americans of the region
(Also known as the Revenue Act of American Duties Act) was an act passed by Parliament only as a revenue raising act on April 5th 1764, which followed the Molasses Act. The Molasses Act stated that molasses would be six pence per galloon, while the Sugar Act Stated that sugar would only be half its price at 3 pence per galloon. By reducing the rate of the tax the British hoped it would be collected, but it wasn't.
former French fort captured by British in French-Indian War
site of an early battle in the French-Indian War; led to escalation of tensions that led to Seven Years' War
Quartering Act (1765)
colonists were required to provide for the basic needs of British soldiers in that state; British attempt to protect soldiers as well as cut costs; upset colonists because they did not like the idea of a large army in their country and it was expensive
Stamp Act (1765)
required use of stamped paper for legal documents, diplomas, almanacs, newspapers, and playing cards to prove that taxes were being paid; taxes were to pay for British troops in America; led to formation of Stamp Act Congress and riots
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
meeting of 14 colonies regarding resistance to the Stamp Act; wrote Declaration of Rights and Grievances; more of a meeting to discuss possible solutions that would help the British regain control than a meeting to rally for revolution
Declatory Act (1766)
Parliament "had, hath, and of right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America, subjects of the crown of Great Britain, in all cases whatsoever."
Townshend Duties (1767)
included the Quartering Act, the reorganization of collection of custom duties to prevent smuggling and raise revenue, and the Townshend Duty Act; the latter installed new taxes on paint, paper, lead, glass, and tea; led to growing tensions between Britain and the colonies, including the Boston Massacre (see below)
Boston Massacre (1770)
a crowd of colonists threw ice, stones, coal, and other small objects at British soldiers who fired back at the crowd; while few died, this event was used as propaganda to raise support for independence
Comm. of Correspondence
colonial assemblies wrote about issues in the colonies and how they wanted to address them and shared this information with similar assemblies; this led to the planning and meeting of the First Continental Congress
Tea Party (1773)
colonists were mad about the Tea Act which monopolized the tea trade; the colonists refused to buy the tea and asked it to be returned, but their request (demand) was refused; patriots, dressed as Native Americans, threw 342 chests of tea into the bay
Coercive/Intolerable Acts (1774)
occurred in 1774. They were known by the British as one name, and by the colonists as another. There were a series of acts within them, known as the Boston Port Act, the Quartering Act, the Administration of Justice Act, the Quebec Act, and the Massachusetts Government Act. These acts were aimed at bringing the colonies back under the submission of the King.
Quebec Act (1774)
was passed by Parliament in 1774 in the attempts to afford greater rights to the French inhabitants of Canada. The law appointed a new governor and council to govern affairs, extended the boundaries of Quebec, recognized the Roman Catholic Church in Quebec, and recognized the use of the French Civil Code. The colonists not in Quebec were not happy because they felt that more land was being cut off from them, and they believed that democracy was being cut off from the inhabitants of Quebec. Not to mention, the colonist feared that the newly found recognition of the French would lead to a comeback of the French empire.
Writs of Assistance (1751, 1767)
were court orders that allowed custom officers to commit searches in stores, towns, and private homes for contraband items. They were first introduced in Massachusetts in 1751 to enforce the Trade Acts. But, the merchants of New England became experts at smuggling and evading the searches. They grew attention again in 1767 when they were used to enforce the Townshend Duties. Americans felt that the Writs of Assistance invaded their privacy.
Gaspee Incident (1772)
It was an Incident that occurred on a British Royal Navy Ship assigned to customs duty. The Gaspee was chasing a merchant shipped that was believed to be smuggling in goods. It landed in Narragansett Bay near Providence. That night, men led by John Brown boarded the ship and injured the lieutenant and set the ship on fire. This was a harsh demonstration from colonists that expressed their anger about the new laws that were being forced upon them.
1st Continental Congress (September 5, 1774)
was a meeting that first convened in Philadelphia. 12 out of the 13 colonies sent delegates, Georgia being the only colony that did not participate. The Congress sought to fix the wrongdoings that had been afflicted upon the colonies from Great Britain. Major actions taken by the congress include: the Galloway Plan of Union, the Suffolk Resolves, the Association, and the Declaration of Rights and Grievances.
Suffolk Resolves (1774)
was a document that was created by men from Massachusetts and other Suffolk Country towns. The document captured the mood of the men and their responses to the Coercive Acts. The resolutions included many statements that many members of the First Continental Congress viewed as too radical and an invitation to war. However, the Continental Congress endorsed the document on September 17, 1774.
Olive Branch Petition (1775)
was a step that was taken in the attempt to avoid military conflict. It was written by John Dickinson in July of 1775, and it was directed to George III. It issued a sharp protest against the British policies and asked the king to halt the war. In addition, it asked the King to repeal the Coercive Acts in the attempts of reconciliation. It was signed by 48 delegates and then sent to Britain, where the King refused to receive the petition.
was a small handpicked elite force that was required to be highly mobile and able to assemble quickly. Typically 25 years of age or younger, they were chosen for their enthusiasm, reliability, and physical strength. They were typically the first men to arrive at a battle.
were people who were loyal to the crown in the colonies. They were typically people employed by the crown, people who benefitted from the trade monopoly, Most Episcopalians, except those in the South, farmers, Clergymen of the Church of England, Some of the most eminent and influential lawyers, and the most recent emigrants of Europe. The bulk of the loyalists lived in New York, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina.
Salutary Neglect (1607-1763)
was a long-standing policy of the British avoiding the strict enforcement of laws from the Parliament that were meant to keep the colonists obedient to Britain. The main period of Salutary Neglect in the Revolutionary Era occurred from 1607 until around 1763.
Virtual vs. Actual representation
The idea of actual representation is that in order for the Colonists to be taxed by Parliament, the Americans should have the right to have actual legislatures seated in London contributing to the decisions. This is also known as No Taxation without Representation.
Ticonderoga (July 6th, 1775)
it took place in Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain in New York. The Fort provided the heavy artillery that the colonists needed to bombard General Gage out of Boston. General John Burgoyne led the British troops and General Arthur St. Clair led the American troops. The battle was between the British, Hessians and Brunswickers and the American Colonists. The Colonists forfeited leaving the British to win.
they were German soldiers hired through the British Empire. They are most known for fighting in the Battle of Trenton, as the majority of the soldiers fighting in that battle were Hessians.
Bunker Hill (1775)
it was a two day event between British forces under the control of General William Howe and American forces under Colonel William Prescott. The Americans had gained control of Breed's Hill in Charlestown in order to protect the shipyard of nearby Boston. The Americans quickly defeated the British and to conserve ammunition, Prescott told his men, "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes."
(December 1777-June 1778) it was the site of the camp for the American Continental Army. Located in Pennsylvania, the winter was particularly harsh, and the army was short on food, clothing, and supplies, but the soldiers stayed tough. The leadership of Commander-in-Chief George Washington and Baron von Steuben, the Prussian drill sergeant, kept the soldiers occupied and made them better, tougher soldiers in the end.
(October 20, 1781) It, in Yorktown, Virginia, was an American victory that ended the Revolutionary War. Under the command of George Washington, the Americans along with French Regiments beat Cornwallis and his British troops.
(September 11, 1777- 1778) It was a battle of the Philadelphia campaign fought in the area surrounding Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania and the Brandywine River. The battle, which was a firm victory for the British, left Philadelphia undefended.
Trenton (December 26, 1776)
It began with Washington and army crossing the Delaware River. After this event, the Americans ran into a group of Hessians and they fought. The battle lasted about 45 minutes and resulted in 900 Hessian prisoners.
(January 17, 1781): Under the command of Nathanael Greene, American forces met British forces under the control of General Charles Cornwallis near some Cowpens in South Carolina. The Americans won.
They were both French territories that the Americans took control of during the Illinois Campaign in 1778.
Guilford Court House
(March, 1781) it was a battle fought by the Guilford Court House in North Carolina that led to a British victory. Although they won, British forces were still weakened from the Battle of Cowpens and because of this General Charles Cornwallis, the commander of the southern British forces, decided to abandon North and South Carolina and march to Virginia.
It occurred during Queen Anne's War on February 29, 1704 when French and Native American forces attacked the English settlement at Deerfield, Massachusetts's killing 56 colonists.