all of the surrounding things, conditions, and influences affecting the growth or development of living things.
the interdisciplinary study of how humanity interacts with other organisms and the nonliving physical environment
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
a group of organisms that have distinctive traits and, for sexually reproducing organisms, can mate and produce fertile offspring
the natural resources and natural services that keep us and other species alive and support out economies
materials and energy in nature that are essential or useful to humans
Functions of nature, such as purification of air and water, which support life and human economies.
the circulation of chemicals necessary for life, from the environment (mostly from soil and water) through organisms and back to the environment
Environmentally Sustainable Society
One that meets the current and future basic resource needs of its people in a just and equitable manner without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their basic needs.
Anything obtained from the environment to meet our needs and wants.
A resource such as solar energy that is renewed continuously. (eg. solar energy)
Can be replenished in days to several hundred years through natural processes as long as it is not used up faster than it is renewed.
Highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
When you exceed a resource's natural replacement rate and the available supply begins to shrink
The amount of biologically productive land and water needed to support a person or population.
Per Capita Ecological Footprint
the average ecological footprint of an individual in a given country or area
Exist in a fixed quantity, or stock, in the earth's crust.
Using a resource over and over in the same form
Contamination of the environment by a chemical or other agent such as notice or heat that is harmful to health, survival, or activities of humans or other organisms.
single indentifiable source that discharges pollutants into the environment (industrial plant)
broad, and diffuse areas, rather than points, from which pollutants enter bodies of surface water or air (runoff of fertilizer)
an approach to deal with pollution; which is cleaning up or dilution pollutants after they've been produced
reduces or eliminates the production of pollutants
Growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new people is added to a population each year. Exponential growth is compound because the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-increasing population.
When people are unable to meet their basic needs for adequate food, water, shelter, health, and education.
How people think the world works, what they think their role in the world should be, and what they believe is right and wrong environmental behavior (environmental ethics).
Planetary management worldview
we are separate from nature, nature exists to meet human needs and wants, technology can manage earth's life support systems
Belief that holds that we can and should manage the earth for our benefit, but that we have an ethical responsibility to be caring and responsible managers, or stewards, of the earth
Environmental wisdom worldview
We are part of and totally dependent on nature and nature exists for all species, not just for us, and we should encourage earth-sustaining forms of economic growth and development and discourage earth-degrading forms.
A possible and testable explanation of what they observe in nature or in the results of the experiments.
Used to create, not test, a hypothesis (book is wrong)
A well tested and widely accepted scientific hypothesis.
Process in which scientists openly publish details of the methods and models they used, the results of their experiments and the reasoning behind their hypotheses.
Scientific law/law of nature
well tested and widely accepted description of what we find happening over and over in the same way in nature.
Tentative science/frontier science
Preliminary results that have not been widely tested and accepted by peer review.
consists of data, hypotheses, and laws that are widely accepted scientists who are considered experts in the field under study.
scientific hypotheses and results that are presented as reliable without having undergone the rigors of peer review, or that have been discarded as a result of peer review, are considered to be unreliable science.
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Fundamental substance that has a unique set of properties and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
Combination of 2 DIFFERENT elements
Combination of 2 or more SAME atoms.
Idea that all elements are mad up of atoms
Equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Forms of an element having the same atomic number, but different mass numbers.
An atom or groups of atoms with one or more net positive or negative electrical charges.
Chemical characteristic that helps determine how a substance dissolved in water will interact with and affect its environment.
Measure of acidity, based on the amount of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) contained in a particular volume of a solution.
Contain at least two carbon atoms combined with atoms of one or more other elements.
Has one or fewer carbon atoms (except methane)
The smallest and most fundamental structural and functional units of life.
Certain sequences of DNA.
Characteristic passed on from parents to offspring during reproduction.
Special DNA molecule together with a number of proteins.
Measure of how useful a given sample of matter is as a resource for humans.
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
Change in chemical compositions of the substances involved.
Radioactive decay, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion
Law of conservation of matter
Whenever matter undergoes a physical or chemical change, no atoms are created or destroyed.
Capacity to do work or transfer heat
Energy associated with motion (flowing water, heat)
energy travels in the form of a wave as a result of changes in electrical and magnetic fields.
Stored energy potentially available for use
Measure of an energy source's capacity to do useful work
High quality energy
concentrated and has a high capacity to do useful work (nuclear fission)
Low quality energy
dispersed and has little capacity to do useful work
First law of thermodynamics
whenever energy is converted form one form to another in a physical or chemical change, no energy is created or destroyed.
Second law of thermodynamics
whenever energy is converted from one form to another, we always end up with a lower quality or less usable energy that we started with.
this spherical envelope of gases surrounding the earth's surface.
Extends about 11 miles above sea level. Contains majority of the air we breath.
Absorb and release energy that warms the lower atmosphere
11-31 miles above sea level. Holds ozone
Consists of all water on or near the earth's surface.
Earth's intensely hot core, thick mantle, and thin outer crust.
All parts of the atmosphere where life is found
Science that focuses on how organisms interact with one another and their nonliving environment of matter and energy.
Nonliving components such as water, air, nutrients, rocks, heat and solar energy of an ecosystem.
Living biological components-plants animals, and microbes
step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organism's feeding status in an ecosystem. Producers and consumers
Make the nutrients they need from compounds and energy obtained form their environment.
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Obtain their energy storing organic molecules and many other nutrients by feeding on other organisms.
Plant eaters, herbivores
Feed on the flesh of primary consumers
consumers that release nutrients from the dead bodies of plants and animal and return them to the soil, water and air.
feed on the wastes or dead bodies of other organisms (earthworms)
uses oxygen to convert glucose back into co2 and water
Sequence of organisms, each of which serves as a food source for the next
a complex interlocking series of individual food chains in an ecosystem.
dry weight of all organic matter contained in its organisms.
Gross primary productivity (GPP)
Rate at which an ecosystems producers (usually plants) convert solar energy into chemical energy in the form of biomass found in the tissues.
net primary productivity (NPP)
rate at which producers use photosynthesis to produce and store chemical energy minus the rate at which they use some of this stored chemical energy through aerobic respiration.
the natural process by which water is purified and made fresh through evaporation and precipitation. The cycle provides all the fresh water available for biological life.
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
hydrologic cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, sulfur cycle.
Variety of earth's species, genes they contain, the ecosystems in which they live, and the ecosystem processes of energy flow and nutrient cycling that sustain all life.
Large regions, such as forests, deserts, and grasslands, with distinct climates and certain species.
Process of earth's life changes over time through changes in the genetic characteristics of populations.
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
Random changes in the DNA molecules of a gene in any cell.
heritable trait that improves the ability of an individual organism to survive and reproduce.
Natural selection leading to an entirely new species.
When different groups of the same population of a species become physically isolated from one another for a long period of time.
Mutation and change by natural selection operate independently in the gene pools of geographically isolated populations.
species that are found in only one area
the gradual process of species becoming extinct
event in which many types of living things become extinct at the same time
the number of different species in a community
Species' way of life in a community and includes everything that affects its survival and reproduction.
have broad niches, can live in many places, eat variety of foods, etc.
occupy narrow niches
Normally thrive in a particular ecosystem.
Migrate into, or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into and ecosystem
species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is being damaged, ex trout
a species whose impact on its community or ecosystem are much larger and more influential than would be expected from mere abundance
Species that plays a major role in shaping communities by creating and enhancing a habitat that benefits other species.
5 Major ways species interact
Interspecific competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism.
When members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resource such as food, water, light, and space
When a member of one species (predator) feeds directly on all or part of a member of another
When one organism feeds on the other, usually by living on or in the host
an interaction that benefits both species by proving each with food, shelter, or other resource. ex. clownfish and sea anemone
interaction that benefits one species but las little, if any, effect on the other. ex. birds nesting in trees
different species developed adaptations so they dont have to compete for the same resources
process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other. ex. Bats and moths
combination of all factors that act to limit the growth of population.
maximum population of a given species that are particular habitat can sustain indefinitely.
Sudden decline in population. Can be caused by a population exceeding its carrying capacity.
series of changes in the species in a community, often following a disturbance
Gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil. Takes hundreds to thousands of years.
A series of communities or ecosystems with different species develop in places containing soil or bottom sediment.
the ability of a living system such as a grassland or forest to survive moderate disturbances.
ability of a living system to be restored through secondary succession after a more severe disturbance.
Cultural carrying capacity
Maximum number of people that the earth could support at a reasonable level of comfort and freedom without impairing the planet's ability to sustain future generations in the same way.
Crude birth rate
Number of live births per 1000 people in population in a year
crude death rate
number of deathsr per 1000 people in a population in a year.
total fertility rate (TFR)
Average number of children born to women in a population during their reproductive years.
average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
infant mortality rate
number of babies out of every 1000 born who die before their first birthday.
number or percentages of males an females in young, middle, and older age groups
As countries become industrialized, their populations tend to grow more slowly.
educational and clinical services that help couples choose how many children to have and when to have them.
the growth of low density development on the edge of cities and towns.
legislation and regulations to limit urban sprawl and preserve farmland
set of physical conditions of the lower atmosphere such as temperature, precipitation, etc.
mass movement of surface water
gases that warm the lower atmosphere
rain shadow effect
low precipitation on the far side of a mountain when prevailing winds flow up and over a high mountain range of high mountains. this creates semiarid and arid conditions on the leeward side of a high mountain range.