Western Civilizations #4

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Defense of the Realm Act (DORA)

•government could requisition property needed for war effort
•measure introduced that aimed to limit abilities of spied to operate
•rationing for basic staple foodstuffs introduced in winter of 1914-1915- stricter rationing of more items (e.g. coal, soup, foods) throughout the war

Albert Einstein

German physicist. New ways of thinking about space, matter, time, and gravity. Discovered the splitting of the atom. E=mc^2 (equivalence of mass and energy)

Mustard Gas

1917. Used by Germans. In all over 1,250,000 soldiers (on all sides) injured by gas over the course of the war. Only 91,000 killed. Used in WW1 for the trench warfare. Could settle in the ground, lasts longer when cold. Difficult to detect. Germans had to wear gas masks.

Irish Revolt

Between Irish Catholics and the Protestant British government. The Sinn Fein (We ourselves) party formed in 1900 to fight for Irish independence. Easter Sunday 1916, a group of nationalists revolted in Dublin. The "Easter Rebels" created a martyrdom. Home rule bill created in 1920, establishing separate parliaments for the Catholic south of Ireland and for Ulster. Bill rejected by the Irish Assembly but accepted a treaty that granted dominion status to Catholic Ireland in 1921. The Irish Free State was established and British sovereignty was partially abolished in 1937.

John Maynard Keynes

Post depression Keynesian Revolution inspired by him. The state would take greater role in managing the economy, stimulating it by increasing the money supply and creating jobs. Have the government deliberately operate in the red whenever private investments weren't enough. "Currency engagement", regulating the value of the dollar according to the needs of the economy.

July Crisis (of 1914)

Triple Entente (Allied Powers): Britain, France, and Russia
Triple Alliance (Central Powers): Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
June 28, 1914 Bosnian Serbs assassinated Archduke Ferdinand. Austria (with Germany) at war with Serbia (with Russia and France). Germany attacks Russia and then France. Invasion of neutral Belgium brought Britain into war. Montenegrins join Serbs. Japanese declare war on Germany. Turkey allies with Germany. Italy declares neutrality.

Auxiliary Service Law

-1916 Auxiliary Service Law- all men 17-60 were essentially conscripted to engage in war work (as defined by the military)
-limited on job mobility
-social Democratic labor unions cooperate
-participate in decision making
-committees of workers and management in big factories
-systematic use of propaganda to encourage nationalism and support for the war
-the war often portrayed as struggle between good and evil
-Germans often argued that they were defending Kultur vs. shallow French and British "civilization"

What led to the 1917 "February Revolution" in Russia and then the Bolshevik-led "October Revolution" later that same year?

...

Why was Germany defeated in World War One?

Broke up their armies to send to several places. France's strong defense. Allies' new technology. (tanks). French made use of American troops. Strong British counterattacks. Ally blockade. German soldiers were exhausted. Other axis powers taken down. Country starving. Sailor mutinies after attempted counterattack. Kaiser abdication.

What challenges did democratic regimes face in the interwar period?

...

What was the impact of the Great Depression in Britain, France, and the United States? How did the respective governments of these countries respond to the Great Depression?

Stock market crash in October of 1929. Banks shut doors. Workers lost their jobs. Approximately 50% unemployment rates in U.S. and Germany. Economic standstill. Abandoned gold standard. Great Britain abandoned its time-honored policy of free trade in 1932, raising protective tariffs as high as 100%. Forced reforms. France and Britain tried to create deflation. Britain got their first Labour party government in 1924. French government passed modified social insurance. Roosevelt New Deal, a program of reform and reconstruction to rescue the economy ( government manages nearly everything).

In what ways did Josef Stalin work to totally mobilize and direct the economy and people of the Soviet Union between 1928 and 1939 and for what reasons?

Five-Year Plan. Economic growth. Collectivization, farm produce goes to a collective farm. Eliminate all possible enemies (purges), sometimes whole ethnic groups.

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