401 Chapter 2 - Approaches to System Development

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Incremental Development

A development approach that completes parts of a system in several iterations and then puts them into operation for users.

Project Planning

The initial activities of the SDLC, whose objective is to identify the scope of the new system and plan the project.

Analysis Activities

The activities of the SDLC whose objective is to understand the user needs and develop requirements.

Project

A planned undertaking that has a beginning and an end and that produces a desired result or product.

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

The entire process of building, deploying, using, and updating an information system.

Predictive Approach

An SDLC approach that assumes the development project can be planned and organized in advance and that the new information system can be developed according to the plan.

Spiral Model

An adaptive SDLC approach that cycles over and over again through development activities until a project is complete.

Prototype

a preliminary working model showing some aspect of a larger system

Iteration

System development process in which work activities--analysis, design, implementation--are done once, then again, and yet again on different system components; they are repeated until the system is closer to what is ultimately needed.

Problem Domain

The area of a user's business for which a system is being developed.

Design activities

The activities of the SDLC during which the system and programs are designed.

Application

The portion of the new information system that satisfies the user's needs in the problem domain.

Implementation Activities

The activities of the SDLC during which the system is programmed and installed

Phases

Related system development activities, which are grouped into categories of project planning, analysis, design, implementation, and support.

Waterfall Model

An SDLC approach that assumes the various phases of a project can be completed sequentially - one phase leads (falls) into the next phase.

Object-Oriented Approach

An approach to system development that views an information system as a collection of interacting objects that work together to accomplish tasks.

Object

A thing in the computer system that can respond to messages.

Support Activities

The activities of the SDLC whose objective is to keep the system running productively after it is installed.

Help Desk

The availability of support staff to assist users with any technical or processing problem associated with an information system.

System Development Methodology

Comprehensive guidelines to follow for completing every activity in the systems development life cycle, including specific models, tools, and techniques.

Model

A representation of an important aspect of the real world.

Tool

Software support that helps create models or other components required in the project.

Integrated Development Environments (IDE)

Tools that help programmers with a variety of programming tasks.

Visual Modeling Tools

Tools that help the analyst create and verify important system models, often generating program code.

Technique

A collection of guidelines that help an analyst complete a system development activity or task.

Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA)

Defining all of the types of objects that do the work in the system and showing what use cases are required to complete tasks.

Object-Oriented Design (OOD)

Defining all of the types of objects necessary to communicate with people and devices in the system, showing how objects interact to complete tasks, and refining the definition of each type of object so it can be implemented with a specific language or environment.

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

Writing statements in a programming language to define what each type of object does, including the messages that the objects send to each other.

Class Diagram

A graphical model used in the object-oriented approach to show classes of objects in the system.

Unified Process (UP)

An object-oriented system development methodology offered by IBM's Rational Software

Repository

A database that stores information about the system in a visual modeling tool, including models, descriptions, and references that link the various models together.

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