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scientific method

state problem,gather info,hypothesis,test,observe data,state conclusion,repeat work

adhesion

water molecules stick together

polarity

+/- charges

surface tension

adhesion of water molecules on a surface

meter

unit of measurement for length

liter

unit of measurement for volume of a liquid

gram

unit of measurement for mass

mass

amount of matter in an object

operational definition

statement that describes how a particular variable is to be measured

weight

measurement of the pull of gravity of the mass of an object

density

measure of amount of mass in a certain volume

mass divided by volume equals

density

motion

when an object's distance from its reference point is changing

reference point

place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion

distance divided by time equals

speed

velocity

speed in a given direction

acceleration

rate at which velocity changes

newton's first law

object stays at rest/stays in motion until an outside force acts upon it

newton's second law

object accelerates when a force acts upon it

newton's third law

for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

inertia

resistence to change

net force

overall force on an object after all forces are added together

allele

one gene for a trait

homozygous

both alleles are the same

heterozygous

two different alleles

two kinds of energy

kinetic,potential

kinetic energy

motion

potential energy

stored

forms of energy

mechanical,thermal,chemical,electrical,electro-magnetic,nuclear

mechanical energy

associated with motion or position of an object

thermal energy

total energy of the particals in an object

chemical energy

potential energy stored in chemical bands that hold chemical compounds

electrical energy

moving electrical charges carry

electro-magnetic energy

travels in waves/the light you see

nuclear energy

stored in the nucleus of an atom/released during nuclear reactions

crest

top of the wave

trough

bottom if the wave

amplitude

height of the wave

wavelength

distance between 2 crests

frequency

number of waves in a given space

angle of incidence

where light strikes surface

angle of reflection

where light bounces off

opaque

no light gets through

heat

transfer of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature

conduction

process when heat is transferred from one particle to another without movement of matter

convection

movement that transfers heat within liquid

convection current

circular flow when hot water rises and cool water takes its place

radiation

transfer of energy by electro-magnetic waves

conductor

material that conducts heat well

insulator

material that does not conduct heat well

evolution

gradual change in species over time

adaptation

trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce

gradualism

evolution occurs slowly but steadily

punctuated equilibria

species evolve during short periods of rapid change

homologous structures

similar body structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor

cast

mold that becomes filled in with hardened materials

characteristics of living things

made of cells,reproduction,respond to environment,metabolism,movement,life span

needs of living things

food,oxygen,water,living space,energy,homeostasis

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