( rales ) dry high pitched crackling and popping, short duration.
( course rales ) moist, low pitched gurgling, long duration.
low pitched snoring, louder on expiration.
high pitched and musical, heard on inspiration and expiration.
Pleural Friction Rub
creaky, grating, heard on inspiration and expiration.
high pitched, harsh, heard on inspiration in trachea or larynx.
fine crackle, coarse crackle
sonorous wheeze, sibilant wheeze, pleural friction rub, stridor
audible wheezing, prolonged expiration
coarse crackles ( rales )
bronchial breath sounds in peripheral lung fields, diminished or absent in late disease.
most acurate O2 delivery method
60-100% oxygen delivery
Simple face mask
8-10 liters, at least 5L to flush out own carbon; 40-60%
1-6 liters ; 20-40%
6-15 liters/minute ; 70-90%
diaphram contracts and flattens out, increasing the length of the thoracic cavity, intercostal muscles contract, elevating the ribs and increasing the diameter of the thoracic cavity.
diaphram and intercostal muscles relax; decrease in size of the thoracic cavity increases pressure, and air moves out of the lungs.
heard over the sternum, last longer during expiration than inspiration; loud, high pitched, tubular, hollow-like sounds.
heard over the anterior one-third of the chest near the sternum and around the scapula posteriorly; medium pitch and intensity with inspiration- expiration being equal in duration.
heard over the majority of the lungs; soft, low-pitched sounds, heard best during inspiration and may be audible during expiration.
Normal breath sounds
bronchial, bronchovesicular, vesicular.
Abnormal breath sounds
fine crackles, coarse crackles, sonorous wheezes, sibilant wheezes, pleural friction rub, stridor.