Leukopoiesis

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Myeloblast

produces all granulocytes

Monoblast

produces monocytes

Lymphoblast

produces the lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)

When is the rate of leukopoiesis accelerated?

during periods of stress

What accelerates the rate of leukopoiesis during periods of stress?

Colony Stimulating Factors and Interleukins

Which is faster--leukopoiesis or erythropoiesis?

erythropoiesis

Characteristics of all leukocytes

All contain a nucleus, exhibit diapedesis (emmigration), perform some immune function

Neutrophil

the most numerous of WBCs, granular leukocyte, phagocytic

What granules and granule materials do neutrophils contain?

Lysozyme, substrate enzymes, oxidizing enzymes, and defensins

lysozyme

enzyme-like material, works against membrane components--peptidoglycan; used inside the cell and also secreted.

substrate enzymes

hydrolyzes organic molecules; used inside the cell.

oxidizing enzymes

oxidizes complex organic molecules (myeloperoxidose); used inside the cell.

defensin

antibody-like material which will lyse foreign cells.

What is the lifespan of a neutrophil?

Between a few hours and 14 days

What are the characteristics of Eosinophils?

uncommon WBC (2-4%), granular leukocyte, slightly phagocytic

What do the granules in eosinophils mostly contain?

antihistamines

What three specific events can activate an eosinophil?

presence of eosinophil chemotaxic factor (most common mechanism); presence of an antibody label antigen; parasitic infection

Eosinophil chemotaxic factor

released by basophils when histamine is released.

antibody label antigen

promote phagocytosis during a systemic immune reaction

parasitic infection

liberates cytokines and promotes phagocytosis

basophil

uncommon WBC (1-3%), granular leukocyte, not phagocytic

Basophil granules contain inflammatory agents such as:

histamine, heparin, serotonin

eosinophil chemotaxic factor

cytokines used to regulate the effects of the inflammatory agents

What do basophils do?

promote blood flow to affected tissue

What substances may enhance basophil activity?

the IgE antibody and histamine from other cells

What are the two types of agranulocytes?

Monocytes, lymphocytes

monocytes

Monocytes are phagocytic and may exhibit a great deal of specialization vesicles: phagosomes, lysosomes, peroxiosomes

NLMEB

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas: Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil

What are the three types of lymphocytes?

Natural Killer Cells, B-cells, T-cells

Natural Killer Cells

The least specialized of the lymphocytes, used to destroy cells lacking the correct self cell codes (glycocalyx codes).

B-cells

involved in the immune response

What are three types of B-cells?

Plasma cells, antigen presenting cells, and memory B-cells.

antigen

immune-generating foreign entity

pathogen

disease-causing antigen

Antigen Presenting Cell

any phagocytic cell that will disassemble an antigen, form a safe copy of it, then initiate an immune response.

T-cells

the most widely distributed lymphocyte. The T-cells will also differentiate, forming specialized cells during an immune response.

Which leukocytes function in acquired immunity and which leukocytes function in innate immunity?

Lymphocytes are used for protection in acquired immunity. All other leukocytes provide protection in innate immunity.

What do plasma cells do?

secrete antibodies

What do Antigen Presenting Cells do?

digest then present antigen for the stimulation of an immune response

What do Memory B-cells do?

recognize previous antigens

What do Natural Killer Cells secrete?

NK cells secrete perforin, which punctures the cell membrane.

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