Ch. 8 Microbiology

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Genome

genetic info in a cell

Chromosomes

contain DNA (genes)

30, 000

We have about how many genes?

NOT

Genes are ____ covered all over (can be spaces apart).

Gene

code for functional products (most of the time these products will be proteins).

DNA, proteins

____ to mRNA to _____.

adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine

4 bases of DNA

nucleotides

contain a nitrogenous base

deoxyribose

what is the sugar in DNA called?

negative

phosphate groups have a ____ charge.

hydrogen bonds

DNA is bonded by what?

Genotype

genetic makeup; potential properties

Phenotype

actual expressed properties; protein

Bacteria Chromosomes

contains 1 circular chromosome

Bacteria Chromosomes

1000X larger than the cell

E. Coli

an example of a bacteria chromosome (4 X 10^7 bp (base pair))

semi conservative

is used to describe DNA replication

DNA replication

strands will unwind; DNA polymerase add base to the complimentary strand

OH

an example of 3 prime

PO4-

an example of 5 prime

3 prime

bases are only added at the what end of a strand?

DNA synthesis

requires lots of ATP

leading strand

continuously

lagging strand

made in pieces

DNA replication

very accurate

Polymerase

"proofreads"

1000

____ bases per second.

Transcription

DNA to RNA

messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA

3 types of RNA

Translation

mRNA to proteins

proteins

made up of amino acids

3 bases

Every ____ ____ in a gene codes for an amino acid.

the genetic code

is universal

degenerate

the code is ____, several codons could make one type of amino acid

Mrna

is read by ribosomes

Ribosomes

two subunits

tRNA

binds the amino acid; has an anticodon

Ribosomes

2 binding sites for tRNA

exons or introns

Bacteria has no ____. Only in eukaryotic cells.

Mutagens

unnatural mistakes

Mutagens

any agent that can chemically or physically react with DNA

chemicals, X rays, UV light

examples of mutagens

Carcinogens

cancer causing

mutagens, carcinogens, carcinogens, mutagens

Not all ____ are ____ but all ____ are _____.

UV light

non ionizing

UV light

often causes thyme disease

UV light

promotes DNA replication

Vertical Gene Transfer; horizontal gene transfer

two general types of genetic transfer

Vertical Gene Transfer

organism to its offspring

plants, animals, bacteria

example of vertical gene transfer

Horizontal Gene Transfer

gene is passed to other bacteria, not offspring

Horizontal Gene Transfer

involves a donor cell -----> recipient cell

Horizontal Gene Transfer

occurs approx 1% or less of a population

transformation, conjugation, transduction

types of genetic transfer

transformation

naked DNA transfer to a bacteria

transformation

works best if the two cells are closely related

bacillus, streptococcus, staphylococcus

examples of transformation

Conjugation

transfer of a plasmid from a donor to a recipient cell

plasmids

Often antibiotic resistant genes are on ____.

Transduction

DNA is transferred from one bacteria to another inside a virus

bacteriophage or phage

example of transduction

transposons

small segments of DNA that can move on chromosomes; some bacteria have these

260 nm

wavelength of uv light

CUU, CUC, CUA

example of a degenerate

UAA, UGA, UAG

nonsense codons

AUG

start codon

61 sense codons; 3 nonsense codons

contained in the genetic code; ____ ____ ____ (code for amino acids) and ___ ____ ____.

genomics

the sequencing and molecular characterization of genomes

enzymatic

catalyze particular reactions

structural

participate in large functional complexes such as membranes or flagella.

transcription

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