Process by which the products of digestion pass through the walls of the intestine into the blood or lymph
Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that proper foodstuffs through the alimentary canal
Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed
Enzymatic breakdown of food
What does salivary amylase digest?
Where is bile produced and stored?
produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
What does bile break down?
Night blindness can often be caused by a deficiency in vitamin ____
Deficiency of vitamin ___ during pregnancy is associated with neural tube defects
B9 (aka: folic acid)
A person who requires a prolonged clotting time would most likely be deficient in vitamin ___
A condition known as rickets or osteomalacia can result from a deficiency in vitamin ____
Scurvy, seen in navies of old, is treated with vitamin ____
A deficiency in vitamin ___ can cause anemia?
What cannot be made by the body and must be provided by the diet?
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
Where does renal filtration occur?
Aldosterone exerts its action by absorbing filtered Na+ where?
What is the thick ascending limp of the loop of Hench which is impervious to H20 necessary for?
create dilute filtrate
What stimulates the NA+ K+ pump in the collecting duct?
What blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II?
What is pyelonephritis?
infection of the kidney
How does urine move does the ureters?
Glucose is filtered by and is reabsorbed by what?
What condition develops when the posterior pituitary no longer releases adequate amounts of ADH?
Kidney stones can be painful because they cause obstruction to what?
Why are females much more prone to cystitis?
due to their short urethras
What is the primary function of the descending loop of Henle?
When water is lost but electrolytes are retained, osmosis moves water from ____ to ____
the ICF to the ECF
When large amounts of pure water are consumed, osmolarities of the 2 compartments are ____ _____
What stimulates water conservation by the kidneys?
What promotes sodium retention in the kidneys?
What blocks the release of ADH and aldosterone, promotes diuresis and reduces thirst?
atrial natriuretic peptide
What happenes when the level of sodium ion concentration in ECF decreases?
more ADH is released
The amount of potassium secreted by the kidneys is regulated by what?
Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by what?
What is the primary role of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system?
pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids
Prolonged vomiting can result in what?
A mountain climber at high altitude may lose consciousness as the result of what?
A person who chronically consumes large amounts of antacids to settle an upset stomach may risk what?
Renal failure can result in what?
hyperkalemia, anemia, hyperphosphatemia
What is a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens and the blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics that serve the testis?
What do interstitial cells produce?
Where does sperm production occur?
How are sperm moved along the ductus deferns?
What is the structure that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation?
What is the erectile tissue that surrounds the uretha?
In males, what is the role of the pituitary hormone FSH?
initiate sperm production in the testes
In males, what is the pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone?
What is the structure that transports the ovum to the uterus?
What is the inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina?
What is the surge in LH that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle called?
Where in the mammary gland does milk production occur?
What are the fleshy folds that encircle and partically conceal the labia minora and vestibular structures?
What is the principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum?
Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of what?
What period of gestation is when the rudiments of all major organ systems appear?
Where is the ovum usually ferilized?
the upper part of the uterine tube
The penetration of the endometrium by the blastocyst is called what?
What is a blastocyst?
a hallow ball of cells
What does the ectoderm form?
What is the hormone that increases flexibility of the symphysis pubic and causes dilation of the cervix?
What hormones are produced by the placenta?
hcG, hPL, relaxin, progesterone
Powerful uterine contractions are suppressed by elevated levels of what?
What are the chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes?
What are the various forms of any one gene called?
What is it called when implantation occurs somewhere other than the uterus?
The trophoblast has many of the characteristics of what kind of cells?
What is the purpose of amniotic fluid?
surrounds the developing fetus, cushions the fetus
When is the heartbeat first heard?
Where is FSH made?
What is the mechanical breakdown of foodstuffs in the mouth?
What is a conduit from the mouth to the stomach?
What type of tissue lines the esophagus?
What part of the GI tract chemically breaks down protein using HCL and pepsin?
What part of the GI tracts is an acidic environment that suppresses most bacteria?
What type of cells secrete HCl and intrinsic factor?
What type of cells secrete pepsinogen?
What part of the GI tract is the next site after partially digested food (chyme) leaves the stomach?
What enzymes produced in the pancreas chemically breakdown protein?
What enzymes produced in the pancreas chemically breakdown carbohydrates?
What enzymes produced in the pancreas chemically breakdown fats?
___ ___ from the liver emulsify fats into small chylomicrons that can be transported in a water based medium
What is neutralized by pancreatic secretions that enters the duodenum through the ampulla of Vater?
What part of the GI tract is the site where most absorption takes place, high surface area due to folds and villi and microvilli?
What part of the GI tract is the site where water and remaining electrolytes are reabsorbed?
What part of the GI tract is the site where bacteria proliferate and produce vitamin K?
What is a synthetic organ, filtering organ and produces bilt salts for fat emulsification?
What organ produces bicarbonate?
What organ is an exocrine producer of enzymes to break down proteins, carbs and fats?
What organs only function is to store bile?
Blood draining into the stomach, intestines, spleen and pancreas flow into the ___ ____ ____
hepatic portal system
What protects vitamin B12 from being absorbed in the small intestine?
What is the major stimulus for gallbladder contraction?
What is released to the blood when acidic, fatty chyme enters the duodenum?
What chemicals act locally and influence certain tissues?
What disease is reflux of acid into the esophagus?
What disease is declining and related to an acid loving bacteria?
peptic ulcer disease
What type of disorders causes symptoms of diarrhea and weight loss malnutrition?
What disease involves scarring of the liver from toxins or viruses?
What are tubes of smooth muscle that transport urine from the kidneys (renal pelvis) the the bladder by the peristalsis?
What type of tissue lines the ureters?
What smooth muscle organ lined by transitional epithelium that stores urine until micturation?
What tube leads from the bladder to the exterior?
What can renal artery stenosis cause?
What disease only causes symptoms when obstructing the ureter?
What disease is an inflammation of the glomeruli that affects the filtration mechanism of the kidneys which ofen develops after strep infection
What is diuresis from?
lack of ADH
The presence of ____ conserves water in the ECF
What acts on angiotensinogen to release angiotensin I?
What is angiotensin I converted to?
What causes sodium retention in the kidneys?
Where is angiotensin I and II converted?
What is a mild vasoconstrictor?
What is a potent vasoconstrictor?
What induces the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex?
What is ICF?
What is contained in ECF?
plasma and interstitial fluid
What is water controlled by?
What is Na+ and K+ controlled by?
aldosterone and naturetic protein
Calcium homeostatis is regulated by what?
PTH and calcitonin
the pH homeostasis quick, temporary fix is maintained by what?
The pH homeostasis slow, permanent fix is maintained by what?
What does breathing too rapidly and deeply and causing CO2 and carbonic acid to be lost called?
What does inadequate breathing causing build up of CO2 and increase of carbonic acid cause?
What is is called when ketoacidosis in DM or lactic acid builds up and organic acids are generated faster than they can be excreted in the urine?
What is it called when there is excessive vomiting that causes a loss of HCl and the kidneys cannot compensate fast enough?
The total concentration of all solute particules in a solution
Chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding hydrogen ions
The elimination of urine
A cell containing half the genetic material that fuses with another gamete to form a zygote
The union of 2 gametes, sperm and egg in the human
In females, what stimulates maturation of a follicle?
In females, a surge in ___ stimulates ovulation
What causes the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone?
LH and FSH
In males, what stimulates interstitial (Leydig cells) to produce androgens?
In males, what stimulates spermatogensis?
androgens and FSH
What gland releases FSH and LH?
In females, what causes uterine contractions, milk let down and sexual satisfaction?
In males, what causes sexual satisfaction and has been called the "pair bonding" hormone?
What is needed for milk production in the breasts and may also have sexual satisfaction effects?
Female gamete; egg
An early embryonic phase consisting of rapid mitotic cell divisions without intervening growth periods whose product is a blastocyst
Stage of early embryonic development which is the product of cleavage
Outer sphere of cells of the blastocyst
Primary germ layer that forms the skeleton and muscles of the body
Developmental stage extending to the end of the 8th week
Developmental stage from the 9th week of development to birth
What consists of the superficial cells that did not migrate into interior of inner cell mass? (outside)
What consists of cells that face blastocoele? (inside)
What consists of a poorly organized layer of migrating cells between the ectoderm and the endoderm? (middle)
What hormone appears in the maternal bloodstream soon after implantation?
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
What helps prepare mammary glands for milk production?
What hormone increases flexibility of the symphysis pubis and causes dilation of the cervix?
What is the failure of menarch before the age of 16?
What is the most common STD in the US and is responsible for 25-50 percent of all diagnoses cases of pelvic inflammatory disease?
Genital warts is caused by this and increases risk of cervical cancer
Infected fetuses with this STD are stillborn or die shortly after birth
Where is sperm generated?
How do sperm become haploid?
What is swept into the uterine tube by ciliary action and if not fertilized then is disgarded?
What hormones does the corpus luteum secrete for pregnancy?
estrogen and progesterone
What does the zygote become?
What happens after a zygote becomes a blastocyst?
it implants into the uterine endometrium, where the placenta and embryo grow
Where do mature sperm cell, non motile spermatozoa assemble?
What stimulates maturation of a follicle?
A midcycle surge in ___ stimulates ovulation
______ and _____ stimulate spermatogenesis
androgens and FSH
What causes activation of the Na+ K+ pump in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts
The release of ADH is controlled by _____
What are the only vitamins that are syntheized in the body?
What vitamins are the fat-soluble vitamins?
What completely encapsulates the glomerulus?
Aldosterone causes activation of the Na+ K+ pump in the ____ ____ ___ and ___ _____
distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts
Angiotensin I raises ____ _____
Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal cortex to release ____
Where does rental filtration occur?
What do ACE inhibitors do?
block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
What substance released by the kidneys is involved with raising blood pressure?
What is the hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary that stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb more water, reducing urine volume?
What is the hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that regulates sodium ion reabsorption?