Bio 254B - Final Review

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Process by which the products of digestion pass through the walls of the intestine into the blood or lymph

absorption

Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that proper foodstuffs through the alimentary canal

peristalsis

Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed

digestion

Enzymatic breakdown of food

hydrolysis

What does salivary amylase digest?

carbohydrates

Where is bile produced and stored?

produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder

What does bile break down?

fat

Night blindness can often be caused by a deficiency in vitamin ____

A

Deficiency of vitamin ___ during pregnancy is associated with neural tube defects

B9 (aka: folic acid)

A person who requires a prolonged clotting time would most likely be deficient in vitamin ___

K

A condition known as rickets or osteomalacia can result from a deficiency in vitamin ____

D

Scurvy, seen in navies of old, is treated with vitamin ____

C

A deficiency in vitamin ___ can cause anemia?

B12

What cannot be made by the body and must be provided by the diet?

essential nutrients

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

nephron

Where does renal filtration occur?

renal capsule

Aldosterone exerts its action by absorbing filtered Na+ where?

collecting tubules

What is the thick ascending limp of the loop of Hench which is impervious to H20 necessary for?

create dilute filtrate

What stimulates the NA+ K+ pump in the collecting duct?

ADH

What blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II?

ACE inhibitors

What is pyelonephritis?

infection of the kidney

How does urine move does the ureters?

peristalsis

Glucose is filtered by and is reabsorbed by what?

proximal tubule

What condition develops when the posterior pituitary no longer releases adequate amounts of ADH?

diabetes insipidus

Kidney stones can be painful because they cause obstruction to what?

peristalsis

Why are females much more prone to cystitis?

due to their short urethras

What is the primary function of the descending loop of Henle?

water reabsorption

When water is lost but electrolytes are retained, osmosis moves water from ____ to ____

the ICF to the ECF

When large amounts of pure water are consumed, osmolarities of the 2 compartments are ____ _____

slightly lower

What stimulates water conservation by the kidneys?

ADH

What promotes sodium retention in the kidneys?

aldosterone

What blocks the release of ADH and aldosterone, promotes diuresis and reduces thirst?

atrial natriuretic peptide

What happenes when the level of sodium ion concentration in ECF decreases?

more ADH is released

The amount of potassium secreted by the kidneys is regulated by what?

aldosterone

Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by what?

calcitriol

What is the primary role of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system?

pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids

Prolonged vomiting can result in what?

metabolic alkalosis

A mountain climber at high altitude may lose consciousness as the result of what?

respiratory alkalosis

A person who chronically consumes large amounts of antacids to settle an upset stomach may risk what?

metabolic alkalosis

Renal failure can result in what?

hyperkalemia, anemia, hyperphosphatemia

What is a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens and the blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics that serve the testis?

spermatic cord

What do interstitial cells produce?

androgens

Where does sperm production occur?

seminiferous tubules

How are sperm moved along the ductus deferns?

ciliary action

What is the structure that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation?

epididymis

What is the erectile tissue that surrounds the uretha?

corpus spongiosum

In males, what is the role of the pituitary hormone FSH?

initiate sperm production in the testes

In males, what is the pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone?

LH

What is the structure that transports the ovum to the uterus?

uterine tube

What is the inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina?

cervix

What is the surge in LH that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle called?

ovulation

Where in the mammary gland does milk production occur?

lobule

What are the fleshy folds that encircle and partically conceal the labia minora and vestibular structures?

labia majora

What is the principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum?

progesterone

Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of what?

relaxin

What period of gestation is when the rudiments of all major organ systems appear?

1st trimester

Where is the ovum usually ferilized?

the upper part of the uterine tube

The penetration of the endometrium by the blastocyst is called what?

implantation

What is a blastocyst?

a hallow ball of cells

What does the ectoderm form?

neural tissues

What is the hormone that increases flexibility of the symphysis pubic and causes dilation of the cervix?

relaxin

What hormones are produced by the placenta?

hcG, hPL, relaxin, progesterone

Powerful uterine contractions are suppressed by elevated levels of what?

progesterone

What are the chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes?

autosomes

What are the various forms of any one gene called?

alleles

What is it called when implantation occurs somewhere other than the uterus?

ectopic pregnancy

The trophoblast has many of the characteristics of what kind of cells?

cancer cells

What is the purpose of amniotic fluid?

surrounds the developing fetus, cushions the fetus

When is the heartbeat first heard?

2-3 months

Where is FSH made?

pituitary gland

What is the mechanical breakdown of foodstuffs in the mouth?

mastication

What is a conduit from the mouth to the stomach?

esophagus

What type of tissue lines the esophagus?

squamous epithelium

What part of the GI tract chemically breaks down protein using HCL and pepsin?

stomach

What part of the GI tracts is an acidic environment that suppresses most bacteria?

stomach

What type of cells secrete HCl and intrinsic factor?

parietal cells

What type of cells secrete pepsinogen?

chief cells

What part of the GI tract is the next site after partially digested food (chyme) leaves the stomach?

duodenum

What enzymes produced in the pancreas chemically breakdown protein?

proteases

What enzymes produced in the pancreas chemically breakdown carbohydrates?

amylases

What enzymes produced in the pancreas chemically breakdown fats?

lipases

___ ___ from the liver emulsify fats into small chylomicrons that can be transported in a water based medium

bile salts

What is neutralized by pancreatic secretions that enters the duodenum through the ampulla of Vater?

chyme

What part of the GI tract is the site where most absorption takes place, high surface area due to folds and villi and microvilli?

small intestine

What part of the GI tract is the site where water and remaining electrolytes are reabsorbed?

large intestine

What part of the GI tract is the site where bacteria proliferate and produce vitamin K?

large intestine

What is a synthetic organ, filtering organ and produces bilt salts for fat emulsification?

liver

What organ produces bicarbonate?

pancreas

What organ is an exocrine producer of enzymes to break down proteins, carbs and fats?

pancreas

What organs only function is to store bile?

gall bladder

Blood draining into the stomach, intestines, spleen and pancreas flow into the ___ ____ ____

hepatic portal system

What protects vitamin B12 from being absorbed in the small intestine?

intrinsic factor

What is the major stimulus for gallbladder contraction?

cholecystokinin (CCK)

What is released to the blood when acidic, fatty chyme enters the duodenum?

CCK

What chemicals act locally and influence certain tissues?

paracrines

What disease is reflux of acid into the esophagus?

GERD

What disease is declining and related to an acid loving bacteria?

peptic ulcer disease

What type of disorders causes symptoms of diarrhea and weight loss malnutrition?

malabsorption disorders

What disease involves scarring of the liver from toxins or viruses?

cirrhosis

What are tubes of smooth muscle that transport urine from the kidneys (renal pelvis) the the bladder by the peristalsis?

ureters

What type of tissue lines the ureters?

transitional epithelium

What smooth muscle organ lined by transitional epithelium that stores urine until micturation?

bladder

What tube leads from the bladder to the exterior?

urethra

What can renal artery stenosis cause?

severe hypertension

What disease only causes symptoms when obstructing the ureter?

kidney stones

What disease is an inflammation of the glomeruli that affects the filtration mechanism of the kidneys which ofen develops after strep infection

glomerulonephritis

What is diuresis from?

lack of ADH

The presence of ____ conserves water in the ECF

ADH

What is manufactured in the hypothalamus and released from the pituitary?

ADH

What acts on angiotensinogen to release angiotensin I?

renin

What is angiotensin I converted to?

angiotensin II

What causes sodium retention in the kidneys?

aldosterone

Where is angiotensin I and II converted?

lungs

What is a mild vasoconstrictor?

angiotensin I

What is a potent vasoconstrictor?

angiotensin II

What induces the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex?

angiotensin II

What is ICF?

cytosol

What is contained in ECF?

plasma and interstitial fluid

What is water controlled by?

ADH

What is Na+ and K+ controlled by?

aldosterone and naturetic protein

Calcium homeostatis is regulated by what?

PTH and calcitonin

the pH homeostasis quick, temporary fix is maintained by what?

respiratory system

The pH homeostasis slow, permanent fix is maintained by what?

kidneys

What does breathing too rapidly and deeply and causing CO2 and carbonic acid to be lost called?

respiratory alkalosis

What does inadequate breathing causing build up of CO2 and increase of carbonic acid cause?

respiratory acidosis

What is is called when ketoacidosis in DM or lactic acid builds up and organic acids are generated faster than they can be excreted in the urine?

metabolic acidosis

What is it called when there is excessive vomiting that causes a loss of HCl and the kidneys cannot compensate fast enough?

metabolic alkalosis

The total concentration of all solute particules in a solution

osmolarity

Chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding hydrogen ions

buffer

The elimination of urine

diuresis

A cell containing half the genetic material that fuses with another gamete to form a zygote

gamete

The union of 2 gametes, sperm and egg in the human

fertilization

In females, what stimulates maturation of a follicle?

FSH

In females, a surge in ___ stimulates ovulation

LH

What causes the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone?

LH and FSH

In males, what stimulates interstitial (Leydig cells) to produce androgens?

LH

In males, what stimulates spermatogensis?

androgens and FSH

What gland releases FSH and LH?

pituitary

In females, what causes uterine contractions, milk let down and sexual satisfaction?

oxytocin

In males, what causes sexual satisfaction and has been called the "pair bonding" hormone?

oxytocin

What is needed for milk production in the breasts and may also have sexual satisfaction effects?

prolactin

Female gamete; egg

ovum

Male gamete

sperm

Fertilized egg

zygote

An early embryonic phase consisting of rapid mitotic cell divisions without intervening growth periods whose product is a blastocyst

cleavage

Stage of early embryonic development which is the product of cleavage

blastocyst

Outer sphere of cells of the blastocyst

trophoblast

Primary germ layer that forms the skeleton and muscles of the body

mesoderm

Developmental stage extending to the end of the 8th week

embryo

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