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The olfactory receptors are activated by

odorant molecules

According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the

activation of nerve fibers in your spinal cord

The tendency to perceive a moving light in the night sky as belonging to an airplane rather than a satellite best illustrates the impact of

perceptual set.

Margo insists that her dreams frequently enable her to perceive and predict future events. Margo is claiming to possess the power of

precognition

Touching side-by-side cold and pressure spots triggers a sense of

wetness

En route to the visual cortex, neural impulses from the retina are first relayed to the

thalamus

Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates

blindsight

Patients who have negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure may experience increased postoperative pain. This best illustrates the importance of

top-down processing

The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the

absolute threshold

Receptor cells for kinesthesis are located in the

bones, ears, tendons, and joints.

The visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ________ in infants.

depth perception

Giulio's bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim's. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Giulio's bag feel heavier. This best illustrates

changes in the shape of the lens as it focuses on objects.

Which basic taste attracts us to protein-rich foods?

umami

Our sense of position and movement if individual body parts is called

kinesthesis

Visual information is processed by

ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors.

Although college textbooks frequently cast a trapezoidal image on the retina, students typically perceive the books as rectangular objects. This illustrates the importance of

shape constancy

Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of

the Young-Helmholtz theory.

Which senses is best described as a chemical sense?

Smell

The extrasensory ability to perceive an automobile accident taking place in a distant location ________

clairvoyance

The extrasensory ability to know at any moment exactly what your best friend is thinking is to ________.

telepathy

Knowing about the effects of the perceived distance of objects on their perceived size helps us to understand

the Moon illusion

After losing his left hand in an accident, Jack continued to experience pain in his nonexistent hand. His experience illustrates

phantom limb sensations

The organizational rules identified by Gestalt psychologists illustrate that

the perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts.

Jody's horse looks just as black in the brilliant sunlight as it does in the dim light of the stable. This illustrates what is known as

lightness constancy

The direct link between a single cone and a single ________ preserves the fine details in the cone's message

bipolar cell

The high notes on a piano always produce ________ sound waves than the low notes

higher-frequency

Photographs of people were rated more positively if the photos immediately followed a briefly flashed image of kittens. This best illustrates the impact of

priming

Infants who were exposed to the visual cliff

refused to cross over the "deep" side to their mothers.

In experiments, an image is quickly flashed and then replaced by a masking stimulus that inhibits conscious perception of the original image. In these experiments, the researchers are studying the effects of

priming

The principle of connectedness would most likely lead you to perceive all the ________ as parts of a single unit.

rungs in a ladder

Because she mistakenly thought she was much closer to the mountain than she actually was, Fiona perceived the mountain to be ________ than it actually was.

smaller

Which of the following best illustrates the impact of central nervous system activity in the absence of normal sensory input?

tinnitus

Cones and rods are to vision as ________ are to audition.

hair cells

According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the

activation of nerve fibers in your spinal cord.

The brain network responsible for vision develops normally only if visual experience occurs during the first few months after birth. This suggests the importance of ________ for normal visual development.

a critical period

The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Wiesel consist of

nerve cells in the brain

A concept that helps us to interpret ambiguous sensations is called a

schema

According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when both red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones are stimulated simultaneously, a person should see

yellow

During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's

absolute threshold

Our shifting perceptions of a Necker cube best illustrate the importance of

top-down processing.

People with color-deficient vision for red and green may still see yellow. This is most easily explained by

the opponent-process theory

Because Carmella, Jorge, and Gail were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, Ruth perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. This best illustrates the organizational principle of

proximity.

Because the two teams wore different-colored uniforms, Cheri perceived the 10 basketball players as two distinct groups. This best illustrates the principle of

similarity

Which of the following play the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after a thrilling roller coaster ride?

semicircular canals

Retinal disparity is an important cue for

perceiving distance

The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the nervous system is called

sensation

Lightness constancy is most clearly facilitated by

relative luminance

Rebecca was born with cataracts that were not surgically removed until she was 3 years old. As a result, Rebecca is most likely to

have inadequate neural connections in her visual cortex

As the airplane descended for a landing, the pilot saw several beautiful islands that appeared to float in a vast expanse of blue ocean water. In this instance, the ocean is a

ground

When given a placebo that is said to relieve pain, we are likely to be soothed by the brain's release of

endorphins

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