APUSH Ch 19

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Civil War Pensions

administered anualy by the government for civil war veterans ; reformers push for old-age pensions

Half-Breeds

FRACTION OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY; led by James G Blaine; favored reform; against patronage

Stalwarts

FRACTION OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY; led by Roscoe Conkling; favored machine politics; support patronage

Roscoe Conkling

leader of the Stalwarts

patronage

if you support a government party, you are rewarded with a government position

James A. Garfield

nominated and elected as president in the election of 1880- REPUBLICAN; he is a HALF BREED; assassinated because he supported the civil service reform in order to defy the stalwarts! (the stalwarts got angry!)

Chester A. Arthur

nominated and elected as vice president in the election of 1880- REPUBLICAN; he is a STALWART; after the assassination of Garfield, Arthur passed the pendleton act (1st civil service measure)

"balancing the ticket"

the republicans nominated both a half-breed and a stalwart in the election of 1880 in order to "balance the ticket" - or get the votes from the supporters of both parties!

Pendleton Act

1883- first civil service measure; required federal jobs to be appointed based of a written exam rather than patronage

James G. Blaine

leader of the Half-Breeds; republican presidential nominee in the election of 1884; LOSES!

Mugwumps

"liberal republicans" that were disgruntled at the republicans and decided to support "an honest democrat"

Grover Cleveland

won presidential election of 1884 - he is the "honest democrat"; ILLEGITIMATE CHILD SCANDAL!!; aka the "veto-president";

**wants to reduce the tariff**

runs for president in 1888, where the major issue is the tariff. he wins the popular vote but DOES NOT GET ELECTED.

What was the major issue in the election of 1888?

the tariff

Samuel Burchard

calls the democrats a party of "rum, romanism, and rebellion"

"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"

alcoholics, catholics, and rebellious people

coined by Burchard

Benjamin Harrison

won the presidential election of 1888

*supports a high tariff*

his administration is passive - they dont DO anything;
passed the Sherman Anti-trust act to prohibit the restraining of competition by trusts, but it backfired!

Election of 1892

Cleveland wins against Harrison and SPOILER: People's Party's: James B. Weaver

Cleveland's second term

minimal gov't, instituted WILSON-GORMAN TARIFF which supplied the country with modest tariff reducitons

Wabash Case

ruled Granger laws in Illinios unconstitutional (1886) said states cannot control interstate commerce, just intrastate commerce

Interstate Commerce Act

1887, banned discrimination in rates between long and short hauls. Required that railraods publish their rate schedule and file them with the government and declared that all interstate rail rates must be "resonable and Just"

The Grange

groups of farmers who were socially linked through these "lodges" LOCAL

Farmer's Alliance

Regional version of the grange, formed cooperatives, the argued for neighborly responsabiliity

Mary E. Lease

prominent populist orator: Bloodhounds of Money

Ocala Demands

1889 Alliances created a platform

Tom Watson and Leonidas Polk

demagoges and leaders of Alliances

The Chautauquas

educational sermons held in Chautaqua Lakes, NY

Populist Advocates

small suffering farmer, sharecroppers and tenant farmers. liked free silver and they struggled with the racism issue

Omaha platform

(1892): subtreauries (strengthen co-ops) Abolish national bank, farmers can deposit crop into warehouse where it would be accepted as a collateral->allowing growers to borrow money from the gov't at low rates ,abolish nat'l bank, end absentee ownership of land, direct election of US senators, regulate railroads, graduated income tax, remonetization of silver, rejected laissez-faire

Panic of 1893

Reading Railroad and Philly railroad go bankrupt, collapse of stock market

Overexpansion and weak demand

farmers overproduced and were in debt--deadly combination

Jacob S. Coxey

populist, "Coxey's army" advocated public works programs

Bimetallism

recognization of two metals (gold/silver)

mint ratio

16:1 silver:gold

Crime of '73

congress passed law to recognize the existing situation, discontinued silver coinage, upset farmers...

Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890

required the gov't to purchase but not coin silver and pay for it in gold

Cleveland's repeal

he repealed the sherman silver purchase act and spilt the party into two factions: pro gold/prosilver

Election of 1896

Republicans ran mckinley (no silver, tariffs)
Democrats: william jennings bryan: CROSS OF GOLD, bimetallism

Dingley Tariff

imposed during mckinley's presidency, highest tariff yet! Gold

McKinley

became president enacted the gold standard!

At the end...

the united states people began to focus on imperialism and foriegn affairs, shift the focus!

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