Organic Chem

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Hydrocarbons

Molecules composed of only H and C

Properties of organic compounds depend on

Carbon skeleton and how the functional groups attach to the backbone

Radical Group

-R

Carboxyl group

-COOH

Hydroxyl group

-OH

Phosphate group

PO4

Amino Group

-NH2

Four macromolecules

Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acid

Monomers

building blocks that are joined together to make large molecules

Polymers

Monomers linked by covalent bonds

Macromolecules

Vary from species to species and individuals to individuals

Carbohydrates

Monomer: Monosaccharide

Lipids

Monomer: none

Protein

Monomer: Amino Acid

Nucleic Acid

Monomer: Nitrogen Base + Phosphate + Sugar = Nucleotide

Carbohydrates made up of

Carbon Hydrogen & Oxygen

Ratio of Hydrogen to Oxygen

2:1

Ratio of Carbon to water

1:1

Functions of Carbohydrates

structural molecules and Chitin

Monosaccharide

Simplest carbohydrate, known as the simple sugar

Glucose

Blood sugar, monosaccharide

Fructose

Fruit sugar, monosaccharide

Galactose

Part of milk sugar, monosaccharide

Isomer

same Number and kind of atoms, different arrangement

Dehydration Synthesis

Removing Water to link monomers

Hydrolysis

Adding water to break polymers

Sucrose

Table sugar, disaccharide

Lactose

Milk sugar, disaccharide

Maltose

Malt sugar, disaccharide

Polysaccharides

many monosaccharides joined together

Glycogen

Animal starch (liver, muscle) Polysaccharides

Starch

Energy Storage in plants (rice, corn, potatoes) Polysaccharides

Cellulose

Plants, Polysaccharides

Lipids vary in _____, all are ____ and are _____

structure, nonpolar, insoluble

Lipids

Contain mostly C and H, with a little bit of O. Some have small amounts of P and N

Lipids will dissolve

in nonpolar organic solvents

Nonpolar Organic Solvents

Chloroform, Ethernet, Benezene

Functions of lipids

Energy storage molecules or waterproof coverings around cells

1 gram of fat

9 calories

1 gram of carbohydrate

4.5 calories

1 gram of protein

4.5 calories

Things that need lipids

hibernating animals (bears, frogs) , migrating animals (geese), seeds (peanut, sunflower)

Functions of lipids

high proportion of Hydrogen - Carbon bonds are rich in stored energy

Functions of lipids

Contain twice the energy of carbohydrates

Functions of lipids

Do not attract water, so they are stored in a concentrated form. Polar carbohydrates (have a charge) must be surrounded by water and this adds weight

Functions of lipids

Healthy Skin

Functions of lipids

Fat soluble vitamins

Functions of lipids

Protection and Insulation

Functions of lipids

Makes up cell membrane (phospholipids)

Simplest Lipids

Fatty Acids

2 compounds that make up a lipid

Glycerol and 3 fatty acids = a triglyceride (fat molecule)

Fatty acids

Long hydrocarbon chain, carboxyl at one end.

3 types of fatty acids

Saturated, mono-unsaturated, polyunsaturated

Saturated

All carbon atoms are filled with Hydrogen atoms

Saturated

solid at room temperature (ex. butter, lard, bacon)

mono-unsaturated

one double covalent bond replaces 2 hydrogen atoms

mono-unsaturated

olive oil, liquid at room temperature

polyunsaturated

2 or more double covalent bonds replacing hydrogen atoms

polyunsaturated

vegetable oil, liquid at room temperature

Triglycerides include

fats and oils

Triglyceride molecules made up of

1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids

Plant and animal fats mainly composed of

Triglycerides

Triglyceride comprise ___ of the lipids in foods

95%

Principle use of Triglyceride

energy source for metabolic processes

Excess calories from carbs, proteins or fats converted to

Triglycerides, stored as fat

Animals needing lots of fat for hibernation/insulation produce high proportion of

unsaturated fatty acids

Structural molecules that contribute to the shape of the body

Phospholipids

chief lipids components of

membranes

Phospholipids

Hydrophillic, have a phosphate group in place of a fatty acid chain

Steroids

insoluble in water

Include the sex hormones and cholesterol

Steroids

Can pass through the hydrophobic molecules that make up cell membranes

Steroids

Cholesterol

can pass through cell membrane

Important component of cell membrane, brain and nerves

cholesterol

Raw material for production of vitamin D and of steroid hormones

cholesterol

Steroid hormones

aldesterone (adrenal gland, controls Na+ and Cl-)

Amino acids contain

Amine group (NH2), Carboxyl Group, R group

R group makes each amino acid different from each other

Amino Acids

CHON

Amino Acids

Plants use this to build their own types of proteins

Nitrites

Animals must get their amino groups pre-formed, directly from

plant foods, single-celled organisms, or from protein in milk, eggs, or body tissues of other animals

Thousands of different proteins due to

Arrangement (order), number, and kind of the 20 amino acids

Essential amino acids

Must be provided preformed in the food.

Essential amino acids

Cannot be synthesized in the body out of materials available. 9 essential ones

Proteins take up _____ of our weight

20%

Most of our protein found in

1. muscles
2. hair
3. nails
4. eyes
5. skin
6. enzymes

Protein

CHONS

Nitrogen fixing bacteria

Soil microbes, can convert nitrogen into form usable by plants

Functions of proteins

Growth

Functions of proteins

Structure

Growth (proteins)

75% of amino acids we take in are used to make new proteins

Growth (proteins)

Need about 300g/day

Structure (protein)

Fibrous proteins - (spider webs) long and stretched out

Structure (protein)

Globular proteins - (hemoglobin, insulin, antibodies) twisted and folded into particular patterns

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