the movement which sought to reform certain corrupt practices of the Catholic Church and which led to Protestantism.
German theologian who led the Reformation
This was when the Church gave land to a person, to keep until they died, as a reward for some kind of service. The Church of England kept this practice, but other Protestants got ended it.
pardon sold by catholic church to reduce one's punishment
pope clement VI
This pope proclaimed the existence of a "treasury of merit," an infinite reservoir of good works in the church's possession that could be dispensed at the pope's discretion., Pope who was ruling during the 100 Years War
church official who sold indulgences
pope leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
pope julius II
warrior - pope, involved in war and politics instead of spiritual life
ninety five theses
martin Luther's statement of principle's regarding penance and the abuse of indulgences
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
diet of worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Czechoslovakian religious reformer who anticipated the Reformation
the peasants' revolt
revolt, peasants demanded an end to serfdon and other changes to their lives
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531)
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone
diet of Augsburg
1555; recognizes another religion outside Catholicism or Lutheranism; "whose religion, his religion"
peace of augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
cardinal thomas wolsey
the English Archbishop, he worked on behalf of Henry VIII to get papal approval for his annulment to Catherine of Aragon, but failed to get any more than a hearing in Rome.
king henry VIII
Founder of the church in England and ruled England from 1509-1547. He broke the Catholic church because he couldn't get a divorce
Sir Thomas More
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded
(1485-1540) Became King Henry VII's close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey's dismissal. He and his contemporary THomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant.
Catherine of Aragon
Queen of England that could not produce a male heir for Henry VIII
the second wife of Henry VIII and mother of Elizabeth I
Book of common prayer
helped unite the Church of England with prayers and Hymns
An attempt by the RCC to win back people from the Protestant Reformation.
St. ignatius of loyola
begin his Spiritual Exercises in the 1530
Members of the Society of Jesus which became most well known for their work in education of Catholics in Europe. They were devoted to preaching, educating the young, fighting against heresy, serving the Pope, and caring for the needy.
The Council of Trent
An assembly of high church officials summoned by the Catholic Church to clarify doctrine and address reform in response to the challenges raised by the Protestant Reformation.
St. Thomas Aquinas
Miguel De Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
the hero of a romance by Cervantes
queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558
Under this woman's reign, England flourished and the English stage was in a golden age. This woman loved theater!