Chapter 24-The Respiratory System

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1. nose
2. nasal cavity
3. sinuses
4. the pharynx
5. the larynx (voice box)
6. the trachea (wind pipe)
7. smaller conducting passageways

What are the parts of the respiratory system?

1. Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood
2. Homeostatic regulation of body pH
3. Protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating substances
4. Vocalization

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

1. Esophagus
2. Trachea
3. Bronchus
4. Bronchioles

What are the parts of the lower respiratory system?

Bronchi

Identify E

Larynx

Identify M

Internal nares

Identify B

Trachea

Identify N

Frontal sinus

Identify I

Bronchioles

Identify C

1. The Nose & Nasal Cavity
2. The Pharynx
3. The Nasopharynx
4. The Oropharnyx
5. The Laryngopharynx

What are the parts of the upper respiratory system?

Nasopharynx

Identify C

Pharyngeal tonsil

Identify D

Entrance to auditory tube

Identify E

Soft Palate

Identify F

Palatine tonsil

Identify G

Oropharnyx

Identify H

Epiglottis

Identify I

Laryngopharynx

Identify K

Nasal conchae

Identify AE

External nares

Identify T

Hard palate

Identify U

Oral cavity

Identify V

Tongue

Identify W

Mandible

Identify X

Lingual tonsil

Identify Y

Hyoid bone

Identify Z

Thyroid cartilage

Identify AA

Cricoid cartilage

Identify AB

Trachea

Identify AC

Thyroid gland

Identify AD

Respiratory Epithelium

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epitheliam

What is the main epithelium of the respiratory system?

inferior portions of the pharynx, the smaller conducting passages and the alveoli

The respiratory epithelium lines the entire respiratory tract except for the ___________.

stratified squamous epithelium to protect it from abrasion and chemical attack.

What epithelium lines the inferior portion of the pharynx?

Produces a sticky mucus that bathes the exposed surfaces.

In the nasal cavity, cilia sweeps any microorganisms or debris trapped in the mucus toward the pharynx where it will be swallowed and exposed to the acids and enzymes of the stomach.

What is the function of the mucous cells and mucous glands?

Psuedostratified columnar epithelial cell

Identify A

Mucous cell

Identify B

Stem cell

Identify C

Mucous layer

Identify D

Lamina propria

Identify E

Lamina propria

Identify F

Nucleus of columnar epithelial cell

Identify G

Cilia

Identify H

Stem cell

Identify I

Mucous cell

Identify J

Basal lamina

Identify K

Cilia

Identify L

Lamina propria

Identify M

Nucleus of columnar epithelial cell

Identify N

Mucous cell

Identify O

Basal lamina

Identify P

Stem cell

Identify Q

Function of the nasopharynx

Communicates with the nasal cavity and provides a passageway for air during breathing

Function of the pharyngeal tonsil

Also called Adenoids which are collections of lymphatic tissue, which help to filter out bacteria and other foreign matter that pass through the air.

Function of the entrance to auditory tube

Ensures that the ears pressure remain at near standard ambient air pressure. It also drains any accumulated secretions, infection, or debris from the middle ear space.

Function of Soft palate

Helps when chewing and swallowing. It prevents food from entering the nasal cavity and has muscle and connective tissue that gives it mobility and support.

Function of Palatine tonsil

One of the body's many defense mechanisms, protecting both the respiratory and digestive tracts from infection.

Function of Oropharynx

air and food passageway

Function of Epiglottis

A shoe horn shaped flap made of elastic cartilage tissue that prevents food and foreign matter from entering the trachea upon swallowing.

Function of Laryngopharynx

Inferior part of the pharynx that extends from the epiglottis into the esophagus; helps guide food, drink & air where to go.

Function of Nasal conchae

warming and twirling of air

Function of External nares

These are the external openings on each side that lead into the nasal cavities. These openings are normally used to allow air into and out of the nasal cavities.

Function of Hard palate

Bony structure that separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity and helps with eating and speech.

Function of Oral cavity

Formed by lips, hard and soft palate and floor of the mouth contains stratified squamous epithelium that protects the mouth from abrasion during the ingestion of food.

Function of Tongue

physical breakdown of food, taste, moves food, swallowing, speech

Function of the mandible

chewing and crushing food and secondarily in speech by opening and closing mouth

Function of lingual tonsil

assist the immune system in the production of antibodies in response to invading bacteria or viruses

Function of hyoid bone

stitches tongue muscles

Function of thyroid cartilage

forms the bulk of the anterior wall of the larynx, and serves to protect the vocal folds ("vocal cords")

Function of cricoid cartilage

connect various ligaments, cartilages and muscles which are involved in closing and opening of the airways as well as in the production of speech.

Function of the trachea

transports air to and from lungs

Functions of the thyroid gland

regulate the body's metabolism, thyroid secretions also influence growth and the functioning of the nervous system

Larynx

"Voicebox", found just below the point where the pharynx splits into the trachea and esophagus and contains the vocal cords

1. Thyroid cartilage
2. Cricoid cartilage
3. Epiglottis (elastic cartilage)

What are the three large unpaired cartilages that form the body of the larynx?

1. arytenoid cartilage (hyaline)
2. corniculate cartilage (hyaline)
3. cuneiform cartilage (elastic)

What are the three paired laryngeal cartilages?

Plays a role in the opening and closing of the glottis and the production of sound.

What is the function of corniculate cartilage?

Larynx

Be able to identify the following structures

1. Epiglottis
2. Hyoid Bone
3. Larynx
4. Trachea
5. Cricoid Cartilage
6. Thyroid Cartilage

Epiglottis

Identify D

Hyoid bone

Identify E

Thyroid cartilage

Identify H

Cricoid cartilage

Identify J

Larynx

Identify B

Trachea

Identify C

Larynx-sagittal section

Be able to identify the following structures:

1. Epiglottis
2. Vestibular ligament
3. Vocal ligament
4. Arytenoid Cartilage
5. Cricoid Cartilage
6. Thyroid Cartilage
7. Corniculate cartilage
8. Tracheal cartilage

Epiglottis

Identify A

Vestibular ligament

Identify B

Vocal ligament

Identify C

Thyroid cartilage--Adam's apple = laryngeal prominence hyaline cartilage

Identify I

Corniculate cartilage

Identify J

Arytenoid cartilage

Identify K

Cricoid cartilage--Ring of hyaline cartilage below thyroid cartilage

Identify L

Tracheal cartilage

Identify M

Larynx-Laryngoscopic View

Be able to identify the following structures:

1. Epiglottis
2. Vestibular fold
3. Vocal fold

Vestibular fold

Identify A

Vocal fold--Only the vocal folds participate in sound formation.

Identify B

Epiglottis

Identify C

When air from the lungs is passed over the vocal cords inside the larynx, they vibrate. This makes a sound. The vocal cords are tightened or relaxed to change their length. This changes the speed of vibration which alters the pitch. If only the larynx is involved, the sound comes out as a dull 'aaah' in varying pitch. No recognisable words can be formed without the use of the lips, teeth, tongue and palate. This is why people with serious facial injuries or with many teeth missing often have trouble speaking or being understood.

How is sound produced in the larynx?

1. Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
2. Extrinsic laryngeal muscles

Which two groups of muscles are located in the larynx?

1. regulates tension in the vocal folds
2. opens and closes the glottis

What are the two major functions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles?

positions and stabilizes the larynx

What is the function of the extrinsic laryngeal muscles?

They extend between the thyroid cartilage and the arytenoids. Folds of laryngeal epithelium that project into the glottis cover the vestibular and vocal ligaments.

Where is the vestibular ligaments and vocal ligaments located?

Vestibular folds

What is the superior pair of folds called where the vestibular ligaments lie?

Helps prevent foreign objects from entering the glottis and provide protection for the more delicate vocal folds.

What do the the vestibular folds do?

Vestibular folds

What are the false vocal cords called?

Vocal folds

Mucosal folds that function in voice production (speech); also called the true vocal cords.

annular ligaments

connect the tracheal cartilages to their neighboring cartilages. In between each tracheal cartilage

tracheal cartilage

15-20 c-shaped cartilages that stiffen the trachael walls and protect the airways, they prevent the trachea's collapse or overexpansion as pressures change in the respiratory system

Be able to identify annular ligaments and tracheal cartilages as well as primary and secondary bronchi.

annular ligaments

Identify A

tracheal cartilages

Identify B

primary bronchi

Identify C

secondary bronchi

Identify D

the right one is larger and steeper

What is the anatomical difference between the primary and secondary bronchi?

Right 3 lobes
Left 2 lobes

Be able to differentiate right and left lung based on lobes.

Superior, middle & inferior

What are the 3 lobes of the right lung?

Superior and inferior

What are the 2 lobes of the left lung?

Lung Lateral surface

Be able to identify the following:

1. Apex
2. Base
3. Cardiac Notch
4. Superior lobe (right & left lung)
5. Middle lobe
6. Inferior lobe (right & left lung)

Apex

Identify A

Cardiac Notch

Identify B

Base

Identify C

Superior lobe

Identify D

Inferior lobe

Identify E

Middle lobe

Identify F

Superior lobe

Identify G

Inferior lobe

Identify H

Lungs-Medial Surface

Be able to identify the following:

1. Superior lobe (right & left lung)
2. Middle lobe
3. Inferior lobe (right & left lung)
4. Pulmonary Arteries
5. Pulmonary Veins
6. Hilum

Pulmonary Arteries

Identify A

Hilum

Identify B

Pulmonary Vein

Identify C

Superior lobe

Identify D

Inferior lobe

Identify E

Middle lobe

Identify F

Superior lobe

Identify G

Inferior lobe

Identify H

Superior lobe

Identify A

Middle lobe

Identify B

Inferior lobe

Identify C

Superior lobe

Identify D

Inferior lobe

Identify E

The primary bronchi and their branches.

What forms the bronchial tree?

secondary bronchi

When the primary bronchi divides it forms__________.

tertiary bronchi

When the secondary bronchi divides it forms__________.

primary bronchi

Identify A

tertiary bronchi

Identify B

secondary bronchi

Identify C

Smaller Bronchi

Identify D

Bronchioles

Identify E

Terminal Bronchiole

Identify F

Respiratory bronchioles

Identify G

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