Muscular System

31 terms by T-Hoop 

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Origin

Part of the muscle attached to the immovable or less movable bone

Insertion

Part attached to the movable bone; insertion moves towards the origin

Flexion

Decrease angle of a joint (hinge joint-knee and elbow)

Extension

Increase angle of a joint (straighten knee or elbow)

Rotation

Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis (ball&socket joints-shaking head "no")

Abduction

Moving limb away from midline

Adduction

Moving a limb toward the midline

Circumduction

Proximal end of a limb is stationary, distal end moves in a circle combination of a flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction

Dorsiflexion

Lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the skin

Plantar flexion

depressing the toes (pointing the foot)

Inversion

Turn the sole medially

Eversion

Turn the sole laterally

Supination

Forearm rotates laterally so palm faces anteriorly; radius and ulna are parallel

Pronation

Forearm rotates medially so palm faces posteriorly; radius and ulna form an X

Opposition

Movement of thumb when touching tips of other fingers on same hand

Prime mover

Muscle that has the major responsibility for causing a particular movement

Antagonists

Muscles that oppose or reverse a movement

Synergists

Help prime movers by producing the same movements

Fixators

Hold a bone still or stabilize the origin of a prime mover so all the tension can be used to move the insertion bone; eg. postural muscles that stabilize the vertebrae

Direction of the muscle fibers

Usually a reference to midline or long axis of a limb (rectus, oblique, transverse)

Relative size of the muscle

Maximus, minimus, longus, medius, brevis

Location of the muscle

Named for bone associated with the muscle (temporalis = temporal bone)

Number of origins

Biceps brachii, triceps brachii

Location of muscle's origin and insertion

Sternocleidomastoid (originates on sternum and clavicle, inserts on mastoid process of temporal bone)

Shape of the muscle

Deltoid means triangular

Action of the muscle

Flexor, extensor, adductor

Circular

concentric circles around the outside body opening (sphincters -eye & mouth)

Convergent

Fascicles converge to single tendon (pectoralis major)

Parallel

Length of fascicle runs parallel to long axis of muscle

Fusiform

Spindle-shaped muscle with expanded belly (biceps brachii)

Pinnate

Short fascicles attach obliquely to central tendon (uni-, bi-, or multi-)

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