each codon specifies a particular amino acid that is to be place in the polypeptide chain
AUG is called an "initiation codon",
There are also 3 "stop" codons, they do not code for an amino acid.
single-stranded, onti codon
The tRNA is a ___________ RNA molecule with an amino acid bound to one end and an ______________the other end.
Injected the heat-killed type and the non-deadly rough type bacteria. The deadly bacteria "transformed" itself from the heated non-deadly type to the deadly type. Rat died.
THey found out DNA was the transforming facts.
Briefly describe how Aver, McCarty and McLeod further developed Griffiths experiment.
They put non-deadly rough type no heat-killed smooth type which put in different test types which had different enzymes that destroyed various organic molecules.
Explain the experiment and the results of the Hershey-Chase experiment, which is visualized below.
Equal amount of ademine and Thymine, and equal amounts of Guanine and Cytosine
According to Chargaff's rule, how do the bases of DNA pair with one another?
Phosphorous and deoxyribose four nucleotides, denine, thymine, guadanine and cytosine
What is the backbone of DNA made of?
process by which genetic material absorbed from the environment is added to or replaces part of bacterium's DNA
nucleic acid that stores & transmits genetic information from one generation to an organisms to the next by coding for the production of a cell's proteins.
unit of a nucleic acid that is made up a f-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
nitrogenous base in nucleic acids, belonging to the purines; base pairs with thymine or uracil
attraction between complementary nitrogenous bases that produce a force that holds the two strands of the DNA double helix together
nucleic acid made up of a single chain of nucleotides that acts as a messenger between DNA and the ribosome and carries out the process by which proteins are made from amino acids.
of RNA that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus out to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
process in which a message carried by messenger RNA is decoded into polypeptide chain(protein)
type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosomes where the amino acids are joined together to form polypeptides
3-nucleotide sequence in transfer RNA that base pairs with a complementary sequence in messenger RNA during protein synthesis
the bonding of two or more monomers to form a polymer. Chemical process that effects this bonding.
a sub. usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants, that modifies and increases the rate of a reaction without it being consumes in the process.
the material or sub on which an enzymes ads. A surface on which an organism grams is attached
any group of complex compounds found in all living cells and viruses, composed of purins, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, phosphoric acid.
a very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many small structural units linked together
any several carbohydrates that can't be broken down simpler sugars by hydrolysis.
any class of carbohydrates consisting of a number of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds.
decomposition of a chemical compound by reaction with water such as the disassociation of a dissolved salt or the catlaytic conversion of starch to glucose.
any group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar solvents organic solvents and together with carbohydrates and proteins constitute the principal structural material of living cells
is a lipid found in the cell membranes of all animal tissues, and it is transported in the blood plasma of all animals.
are large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide acid between the carbohydrate and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues
the chemical bond formed between the carbohydrate group and amino groups of neighboring amino acids, constituting the primary linkage of all proteins structures.
any of numerous proteins or conjugated proteins produced by living organisms and functioning as biochemical catalyst.
any various compounds consisting of a nucleotide combined with a photosphere group and forming the basic constituent of DNA and RNA
a polymeric constituent of all living cell and many viruses and are involved in protein synthesis and sometimes in the transmission of a genetic information