biolo 1 2010

Created by Smanges 

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translation

the decoding of a mRNA message into a protein(peptide chain)

3 phases of translation

initiation, elongation, termination

genetic code

each codon specifies a particular amino acid that is to be place in the polypeptide chain

codon roles

AUG is called an "initiation codon",
There are also 3 "stop" codons, they do not code for an amino acid.

AUG

is a start codon

3 major codons

UAA, UAG, UGA

DNA

TAC, AAA, TTT, CAG, AAC, TTC, CAT

mRNA

AUG, UUU, AAA, GUc, UGG, AAg, GUA

tRNA

UAC, AAA, UUU, CAG, AAC, UUC, CAU

Polypeptide

met, phe, lys, val, leu, try, val

mRNA, enzymes

Translation of mature____________requires several, ______________, tRNA, and rRNA.

single-stranded, onti codon

The tRNA is a ___________ RNA molecule with an amino acid bound to one end and an ______________the other end.

nucleic acide, proteins

Changing 1 language to another:____________~Polypeptides____________

complementary

The anticodon is _____________to the corresponding mRNA codon.

proteins

made up of amino acids

amino acids

Proteins differ in the number and sequence of ___________.

protein

The sequence of amino acids gives each____________a unique shape and function.

4

The nature of the Genetic Code has a ______letter alphabet.

DNA

nucleotide

mRNA

Code words are copied onto ___________.

3

______is smallest size for a DNA code word.

codons

3 combinations on mRNA are called ___________.

Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis

DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis

protein

DNA~RNA~ ________________

DNA & RNA

____________are directly responsible for making proteins.

I.

Smooth colony(disease) was injected in mouse so mouse died.

DNA~RNA~Protein

What is the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?

II.

Rough colony was injected in mouse so mouse lived.

III.

When heat smooth colony was injected mouse lived.

IV.

Injected the heat-killed type and the non-deadly rough type bacteria. The deadly bacteria "transformed" itself from the heated non-deadly type to the deadly type. Rat died.

THey found out DNA was the transforming facts.

Briefly describe how Aver, McCarty and McLeod further developed Griffiths experiment.

They put non-deadly rough type no heat-killed smooth type which put in different test types which had different enzymes that destroyed various organic molecules.

Explain the experiment and the results of the Hershey-Chase experiment, which is visualized below.

Equal amount of ademine and Thymine, and equal amounts of Guanine and Cytosine

According to Chargaff's rule, how do the bases of DNA pair with one another?

One is purine and pyrimidine fit in the latter

Why do they pair in this way.

twisted ladder

What about DNA did this image reveal?

Watson and Crick

Who won the race to discover DNA's structure?

Phosphorous and deoxyribose four nucleotides, denine, thymine, guadanine and cytosine

What is the backbone of DNA made of?

genetic code

manner in which cells store program that they pas form one generation the the next

transformation

process by which genetic material absorbed from the environment is added to or replaces part of bacterium's DNA

DNA

nucleic acid that stores & transmits genetic information from one generation to an organisms to the next by coding for the production of a cell's proteins.

nucleotide

unit of a nucleic acid that is made up a f-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

adenine

nitrogenous base in nucleic acids, belonging to the purines; base pairs with thymine or uracil

guanine

nitrogenous base in nucleic acids belonging to the purines; base pairs with cytosine

cytosine

nitrogenous base is nucleic acids belonging to the pyrimidines; base pairs with guanine

thymine

nitrogenous base found in DNA but not in RNA; base pairs with ademine

base pairing

attraction between complementary nitrogenous bases that produce a force that holds the two strands of the DNA double helix together

replication

process by which DNA is duplicated before a cell divides.

RNA

nucleic acid made up of a single chain of nucleotides that acts as a messenger between DNA and the ribosome and carries out the process by which proteins are made from amino acids.

uracil

nitrogenous base found on in RNA;base pairs with adenine

transcription

process by which a molecule of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of RNA.

messenger (RNA)-

of RNA that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus out to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

codon

3 nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for an amino acid

translation

process in which a message carried by messenger RNA is decoded into polypeptide chain(protein)

transfer RNA

type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosomes where the amino acids are joined together to form polypeptides

ribosomal RNA

type of RNA that makes up the major part of the ribosomes

anticodon

3-nucleotide sequence in transfer RNA that base pairs with a complementary sequence in messenger RNA during protein synthesis

PH scale

measuring the acidity or alkalinity of a sub. numbered 1-14

suspension

a mixture in which small particle of sub. are disposed

organic compound

any compound of carbon and another element are a radical

inorganic compound

any compound that does not contain carbon

polymerization

the bonding of two or more monomers to form a polymer. Chemical process that effects this bonding.

monomer

molecule that can be combined with others to form a polymer

catalyst

a sub. usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants, that modifies and increases the rate of a reaction without it being consumes in the process.

substrate

the material or sub on which an enzymes ads. A surface on which an organism grams is attached

active sight

the part of an enzyme at which catalysis of the substrate occurs.

nuclei acid

any group of complex compounds found in all living cells and viruses, composed of purins, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, phosphoric acid.

polymer

any numerous natural and synthetic compounds of usually high molecular weight consisting

macromolecule

a very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many small structural units linked together

monosaccharide

any several carbohydrates that can't be broken down simpler sugars by hydrolysis.

dehydration

the process of removing water from a substance or compound

polysarcharide

any class of carbohydrates consisting of a number of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds.

hydrolysis

decomposition of a chemical compound by reaction with water such as the disassociation of a dissolved salt or the catlaytic conversion of starch to glucose.

lipid

any group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar solvents organic solvents and together with carbohydrates and proteins constitute the principal structural material of living cells

cholesterol

is a lipid found in the cell membranes of all animal tissues, and it is transported in the blood plasma of all animals.

protein

are large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide acid between the carbohydrate and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues

amino acid

an organic compound containing group

peptide bond

the chemical bond formed between the carbohydrate group and amino groups of neighboring amino acids, constituting the primary linkage of all proteins structures.

enzyme

any of numerous proteins or conjugated proteins produced by living organisms and functioning as biochemical catalyst.

nucleotide

any various compounds consisting of a nucleotide combined with a photosphere group and forming the basic constituent of DNA and RNA

RNA

a polymeric constituent of all living cell and many viruses and are involved in protein synthesis and sometimes in the transmission of a genetic information

DNA

a nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA

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