Serfdom in Eastern Europe after the High Middle Ages, very repressive and substantially limited serfs' rights
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
Nobility and landowning classes that dominated the Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia
Under Ivan the Terrible's system of autocracy and compulsory service "All the people consider themselves _______, that is, slaves of their Prince"
Landowning noble in Russia under the tsars
government in which one person has uncontrolled or unlimited authority over others; the government or power of an absolute monarch.
this group ruled Russia from 13th until the 15th century
Stated that the Habsburg possessions were never to be divided and were always to be passed intact to a single heir, who might be female since Charles VI was the last of all Habsburg males.
As the service nobles demanded more from the peasants, more and more peasants fled toward the wild, recently conquered territories to the easy and south. There they formed free groups and outlaw armies known as ________, who maintained a precarious independence beyond the tsar's reach
Winter Palace in St. Petersburg
Rebuilt by Bartolomeo Rastrelli as an enormous, aqua-colored royal residence, now the Hermitage Museum. There Elizabeth, Peter the Great's daughter, established a flashy, luxury-loving, and slightly crude court, which Catherine the Great in turn made truly imperial
Time of Troubles
An era of confusion and violent struggles for power after the death of Ivan the Terrible in 1584. This era extends from 1598 to 1613
Battle of Poltava
Peter the Great's new war machine crushed the smaller army of Sweden's Charles XII in Ukraine at ________ in 1709
Division between Western and Eastern Europe
A governer of provinces in the Dutch United Provinces.
Held the tsar's land on the explicit condition that they serve in the tsar's army
After the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, the tsars saw themselves as the heirs of both the caesars and Orthodox Christianity, the one true faith.
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans.
The representative body of the different estates, or legal orders, in Bohemia
Drastically reduced the power of the Bohemian Estates. He also confiscated the landholdings of many Protestant nobles and gave them to a few great Catholic nobles.
1637-1657. centralized government. strengthened Habsburg holdings. established a standing army. wanted to conquer the plains of hungary. absolutist.
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566) He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
He had no male heir and only a daughter (Maria Theresa) and he made the Pragmatic Sanction to ensure that she would be able to be the legitimate ruler of Austria
elector of Brandenburg
Hohenzollern family; their right to help choose the Holy Roman emperor with six other electors bestowed prestige, but the elector had no military strength whatsoever
Frederick William the "Great Elector"
Wanted to unify his three quite separate provinces; Brandenburg, Prussia, and scattered holdings along the Rhine in western Germany. Established a standing army.
Frederick William I
The Soldier's King; built up an army but never used it. Had a bizarre love for tall soldiers
Rejects the authority o the pope, but this is the main difference in religious and moral beliefs dividing it from Roman Catholicism
First Czar of Russia. During good Era: made many reforms, Created a council that included members from all classes, Defeated Mongols and expanded borders. During bad Era: Paranoid and strict policies lost many of his followers. Killed his only heir and launched Russia into a Time of Troubles.
Peter the Great
Interested primarily in military power, he was determined to redress the defeats the tsar's armies had occasionally suffered in their wars with Poland and Sweden since the time of Ivan IV. He was equally determined to continue the tsarist tradition of territorial expansion
Great Northern War
Peter the Great believed he could easily take over the scattered holdings of Sweden, could not - long and brutal war, Russia eventually got Latvia and Estonia