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Chapter 3 The Human Body: A Nutrition Perspective

Bone, cartilage, muscle, and nerves are considered
A) organs.
B) organ systems.
C) tissues.
D) organisms.

C) tissues

What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
A) Epiglottis
B) Tongue
C) Tonsils
D) Esophagus

A) Epiglottis

Blood leaving the intestine goes by way of a vein to the
A) kidneys.
B) heart.
C) liver.
D) pancreas.

C) liver.

After digestion and absorption, which organ system carries fat and fat-soluble vitamins?
A) Portal
B) Enterohepatic
C) Lymphatic
D) Mesentery

C) Lymphatic

Where does digestion begin?
A) Mouth
B) Stomach
C) Esophagus
D) Small intestine

A) Mouth

Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver?
A) Hepatic Portal vein
B) Mesenteric vein
C) Subclavian vein
D) Femoral vein

A) Hepatic Portal vein

Most digestion and absorption takes place in the
A) stomach.
B) small intestine.
C) pancreas.
D) large intestine.

B) small intestine.

The villi of the small intestine
A) provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption.
B) store fat-soluble vitamins.
C) continuously move food through the small intestine to the colon.
D) inactivate enzymes consumed with food.

A) provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption.

The ring-like muscles that retard or prevent backflow of partially digested food in the gastrointestinal tract are called
A) sphincters.
B) passages.
C) openings.
D) gates.

A) sphincters.

Which of the following is a description of chyme?
A) A watery mixture of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines
B) The semisolid mass of undigested food that is swallowed
C) The mixture of pancreatic juices containing enzymes for digestion
D) A thick, viscous material synthesized by mucosal cells for protection against digestive juices

A) A watery mixture of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines

What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
A) Emulsifies fats
B) Neutralizes stomach acid
C) Digests food
D) Protects stomach cells from gastric juices

D) Protects stomach cells from gastric juices

Which of the following meals would leave the stomach last?
A) Bagel, orange juice, and banana
B) Non-fat yogurt, banana, and skim milk
C) Raisin Bran, skim milk, English muffin, and coffee
D) Sausage, egg, cheese, biscuit, and coffee

D) Sausage, egg, cheese, biscuit, and coffee

What substance helps suspend fat in a watery digestive mixture, making fat more available to digestive enzymes?
A) Bicarbonate
B) Mucus
C) Bile
D) Pancreatic juices

C) Bile

Peristalsis refers to
A) chewing and swallowing.
B) the opening and closing of sphincters.
C) the action of bile on dietary fat.
D) muscular movement of materials through the GI tract

D) muscular movement of materials through the GI tract

What percentage of a meal has been absorbed by the time it leaves the small intestine?
A) 25%
B) 55%
C) 80%
D) 95%

D) 95%

All of the following can weaken esophageal sphincter tension and promote heartburn except
A) root beer.
B) coffee.
C) alcohol.
D) nicotine.

A) root beer.

These protein-based substances enhance digestion by making chemical reactions more likely to happen.
A) Bile
B) Emulsifiers
C) Enzymes
D) Hormones

C) Enzymes

Which of the following is true about digestive enzymes?
A) One enzyme can speed many types of chemical processes.
B) Enzymes are not sensitive to temperature.
C) Enzymes that work in the acidic environment of the stomach cannot work in the basic or alkaline environment of the small intestine and vice versa.
D) Enzymes typically work very slowly.

C) Enzymes that work in the acidic environment of the stomach cannot work in the basic or alkaline environment of the small intestine and vice versa.

A hormone responds to food entering the small intestine and stimulates the pancreas to release
A) bicarbonate.
B) acid.
C) bile.
D) mucus.

A) bicarbonate.

In passive absorption (diffusion), nutrients enter the cell
A) with a carrier.
B) with the expenditure of energy.
C) from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration.
D) from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration.

C) from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration.

A function of the large intestine is to absorb
A) fats and proteins.
B) vitamins and minerals.
C) water and minerals.
D) proteins and carbohydrates.

C) water and minerals.

Which of the following therapies is appropriate for ulcer treatment?
A) Aspirin
B) Antacids
C) Orange juice
D) Milk and cream

B) Antacids

All of the following are characteristics of heartburn except which one?
A) It is a gnawing pain in the upper chest.
B) It is caused by a backflow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus.
C) It can damage the esophagus because it has no mucus lining to protect the esophagus.
D) It subsides when a person relaxes and lies down after a meal.

D) It subsides when a person relaxes and lies down after a meal.

Constipation can best be prevented by
A) eating dietary fiber.
B) restricting fluids.
C) restricting physical exercise.
D) using laxatives.

A) eating dietary fiber.

Current thought regarding ulcer disease implicates infection with __________, as a common cause of ulcers.
A) Salmonella
B) Helicobacter pylori
C) E. coli
D) Clostridium botulinum

B) Helicobacter pylori

The _______________ prevents the entrance of food into the trachea.

epiglottis

When looking at the organization of the human body, smaller units lead to progressively larger units. For instance, groups of atoms are called molecules, groups of cells are called _______________, and various organs that work in coordination are called organ systems.

tissue;
tissues

A _______________ is a medication that inhibits the ability of gastric cells to secrete hydrogen ions.

h2 blocker;
proton pump inhibitor

_______________ absorption requires a carrier and energy.

active

The primary components of fecal material are water and _______________.

fiber;
undigested fiber

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