Bio II ch 4 voc

42 terms by holdenmar 

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anabolic reactions

larger molecules are synthacized to form smaller molecules

catabolic reactions

larger molecules are broken down into smaller molecules

metabolic rate

rate at which the bodys bio chem builds up and breaks down molecules to store and release energy

dehydration synthesis

removing a molecule of water to join two smaller molecules

hydrolysis

where a molecule of water is inserted into a polymer which is split into two smaller molecules

enzymes

complex protines that function to lower the actavation energy of a reaction so it may begin and proceed more rapidly

coenzyme

nonprotine organic molecule required for the actavity of a particular enzyme

cofactor

smalle molecule or ion that must combine with an enzyme for actavity

substrate

substince upon wihc an enzyme reacts

oxidation

process by which oxygen combines with another chemical the removal of h or loss of electrons; opposite of reduction

metabolic pathway

consists of a series of enzyme, controlled reactions leading to the formation of a particular enzyme

cellular resparation

cellular process that relaeases energy from organic compounds

anerobic respiration

cellular resparation w/o 02

glycolysis

breakdown of glucose which occurs anaerobicly in cytosol

cytric acid cycle

series of chemical reactions that oxidises certin molecules, releasing energy: kreb cycle

beta oxidation

chemical process by which fatty acids are broken down into molecules of acetyl conenzyme A

acetyl conezyme A

intermediate compound produced during oxidation of carbohydrates and fats

pyruvic acid

intermediate product of carbohydrate oxidation

adenosine diphosphate

organic molecule that occurs when atp looses terminal phosphate

adenosine triphosphate

organic molecule that stores and releases energy for use in cellular process

ketone body

organic compound produced during fat catabolism

deamination

removing amino group from amino acids

urea

nonprotein nitrogenous sub resulting from protine metabolism

dipeptide

formed by bound amino acids

polypeptide

protien, many bound amino acids

vitamin

organic compound other than a carbohydrate, lipid, or protine required for normal metabolism, but that body cannot synthacize in normal ammounts

genetic code

correspondence betwene particular DNA neucleotides base triplets and specific amino acids

gene

portion of a DNA molecule that encodes information to synthesize a protein, a control sequence, mRNA, or tRNA

gene expression

cellular synthesis of protine coded for by piticular gene

transcription

manufacturing complamentrary for RNA from DNA

messenger RNA

transmits information for proteins amino acid sequence from cell nucleus to cytoplasm

codon

set of three neucleotides of a mRNA molecule corresponding to a particular amino acid

transcription

assembly of an amino acid chain according to the sequence of base triplets in a mRNA molecule

transfer RNA

RNa that correctly aligns amino acids to form protine

Anticodon

three contigous neucleotides of tRNA molecule that are complamentary to a specific mRNA

replication

reproduction of an exact copy of a DNA molecule which occurs during interphase

mutation

change in a gene

hyperplasia

uncontrolled cell division

dedifferentation

loss by CA cells of specalized structure and function of normal cells

invasiveness

CA cells break through normal boundries b/t cell types within some organs

angiogenesis

formation of blood vessels by CA cells to provide nutrition and remove waste

metastasis

tendency of CA cells to spread into other tissue

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