An engaged column-like element that is rectangular in format and used for decoration in architecture
A projecting support built against an external wall, usually to counteract the lateral thrust of a vault or arch within.
A series of arches, carried by columns or piers and supporting a common wall or lintel
An elongated or continuous semicircular vault (an arched masonry structure that spans an interior space), shaped like a half cylinder.
A vault created by the intersection of two barrel vaults of equal size which creates four side compartments of identical size and shape
The wall that supports a dome. Also, a segment of the circular shaft if a column
In architecture, a circular opening. Oculi are usually found either as windows or at the apex of a dome. When heated, the alloy becomes fused with the surrounding metal and provides contrasting detail.
The uppermost section of a classical entablature. More generally, a horizontally projecting element found at the top of a building wall or pedestal. A raking cornice is formed by the junction of two slanted cornices, most often found in pediments.
A cement mortar material that can be applied to the surface of any building or structure to form a hard and durable covering for the exterior wails or other exterior surfaces.
A style in which artists concern themselves with describing the exterior likeness of an object or person, usually by rendering its visible details in a finely executed, meticulous manner
A row of columns, supporting a straight lintel (as in a porch or portico) or a series of arches (arcade)
In Roman architecture, an these were large apartment buildings where the Plebs (lower class) and Equates (middle class) of Romans dwelled. The floor at ground level was used for tabernas, shops and businesses with living space on the higher floors.
An un-roofed interior courtyard or room in a Roman house, sometimes having a pool or garden, sometimes surrounded by columns.
A surrounding colonnade in Greek architecture. A building of this style is surrounded on the exterior by a colonnade.
An upper-class country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably.
A method of rendering the effect of spatial distance by subtle variations in color and clarity of representation. (Think cloudy!)
A method of giving the impression of recession by visual instinct, not by the use of an overall system or program. (Think M.C. Escher!)
A Jewish lamp-stand with seven or nine branches; the nine-branched menorah is used during the celebration of Hanukkah. Representations of the seven-branched menorah, once used in the Temple if Jerusalem, became a symbol of Judaism.
The central space of a basilica, two or three stories high and usually flanked by aisles.
The topmost zone of a wall with windows in a basilica extending above the aisle roofs. Provides direct light into the central interior space (the nave).
A recessed decorative panel that is used to reduce the weight of and to decorate ceilings of vaults.
Images formed by small colored stone or glass pieces, affixed to hard, stable surfaces.
During this Ancient Roman period, artists drew their inspiration from Greek and Near Eastern sources, however, their art is distinctly unique.
This Ancient Roman period is credited with the invention (or at least first lasting use of) the arch.
The wealth of this Ancient Roman period came from the fertile soil and an abundance of metal ore.
This Ancient Roman period was ruled by an oligarchy, or a government by aristocrats.
This Ancient Roman period grew to control most of the Mediterranean sea through conquest
Rulers of this Ancient Roman period assumed power through bloodline.
Under this Ancient Roman period, Augustus Caesar came to power and was the leader of Rome for more than 60 years, establishing the Pax Romana and economic prosperity.
The contributions this Ancient Roman period gave to society include forms of law, governmental and administrative structures, and civil engineering and architecture.
Ara Pacis Augustae
This Roman monument synthesizes Roman traditions and Greek Classical influence to express the peace and prosperity that Augustus brought to Rome
Augustus of Primaporta
In this sculpture, we see the emperor Caesar Augustus as he wanted to be seen and remembered. This work demonstrates the creative combination of earlier sculptural traditions that is a hallmark of Augustan art: it is an idealization (Greek!) of a specific ruler and his prowess, but also illustrates the way Roman emperors would continue to use portraiture for propaganda
During this Ancient Roman period, Roman leaders "adopt" administrators to take over after their death. As a result of this the culture flourished and private patronage of the arts increased
Under this Ancient Roman leader, the Roman Empire reached its greatest extent.
This Ancient Roman leader succeeded Trajan, and under his rule new building programs and arts flourished.
This Ancient Roman leader broke the tradition of adoption as a form of succession in the High Imperial Period of Ancient Rome, and as a result his son, Commodus, destroyed the carefully constructed government over the course of 12 short years.
Under this Ancient Roman period, Commodus started the political and economic decline in the Roman Empire. Barbarian groups attacked from all surrounding areas, and the army took over the government as administrators and decision makers.
Under this Ancient Roman period, the Empire was divided in two short years, and formed into a tetrarchy, or a rule of four. Under this form of government, the ruler designated the heir as they had done in the time of the flourishing empire.
This Ancient Roman leader got rid of the tetrarchy in 305 CE, which lead to further political and social unrest.
Constantine the Great
This Ancient Roman leader ruled as a sole emperor of the Roman Empire until 337 CE.
Constantine the Great
This Ancient Roman leader moved the capital of the Empire from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople.
Constantine the Great
This Ancient Roman leader had a vision of a cross in a dream and immediately converted to Christianity; he began the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity.
Setting a Stage
This Roman painting technique displays a melodramatic scene, as if the subjects were performing in a theatrical production.
This Roman painting technique clearly displays relative distance through lighter colors and "fog"
This Roman painting technique shows the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
This Roman painting technique was used as decor for houses and insulae; it was often found in kitchens.
This aspect of Roman painting showed a dramatic increase in skill since the Greek equivalent, but proportions were still not 100% correct, despite the beauty of the image. These paintings showed a higher effort towards realism, however.
Equestrian Sculpture of Marcus Aurelius
This gilded-bronze equestrian statue of the emperor, dressed as a military conqueror in a tunic and short, heavy cloak, was mistakenly identified as Emperor Constantine, due to the lack of weapons and larger-than-life portayal of his body in proportion to the horse.
Column of Trajan
The relief decoration on this Ancient Roman monument spirals upward in a band displaying every meticulous procedure that led to this leader's victory.