Location: Athens, Greece
Date: 448 - 432 BCE
the largest temple in Greece, built to show superiority over other Greek city-states.
Dedicated to Athena and her assistance in defeating the Persians
Temple of Athena Nike
Location: Athens, Greece
Date: 400 BCE
Overlooks the main entrance to the Acropolis.
Dedicated to Athena and her military victories.
Numerous images of Nikes are found in and on the temple.
Drapery is smaller than the Elgin marbles.
"wet" clothes, meaning they stick to the body and show figure
Processional Frieze of the Parthenon
Runs the length of the upper walls.
2 standing figures, one folding a fabric for a young girl who will be offered as a sacrificial victim to this pantheon of gods.
She uses the cloth to cover herself because the king of Athens was told by the oracle to sacrifice his daughter to save Athens and he does.
Ritual preceded by a procession every year and every 4 yrs was a super ritual.
Frieze shows all Athenians carefully ordered and idealized, representing Athens' citizens and society coming together to celebrate Athena
Cult Statue of Athena Parthenos
Found inside the Parthenon.
The most expensive piece in the temple.
40' tall and armed w/ a spear and shield.
Holds a Nike to represent victory.
Meant to symbolize the victory over the Persians.
Cost more than the rest of the site combined.
Date: 350 BCE
standing in "Pudica Pose", a Greek invention of gesture (shameful) seen as a way to draw attention to her modest body while at the same time makes her more erotic.
Praxiteles Hermes and Infant
Date: 380 BCE
Sensuous and fleshy.
Hermes is taking care of the infant who is one of Zeus' illegitimate children b/c Hera (Zeus' wife) wants it dead.
Shows graceful "S" curve which is used a lot in Greek sculpture.
S curve: denoted by elongated chest and swinging of the hips.
The Scraper (Apoxymenos)
Date: 330 BCE
Figured out how to leave arms out without needing props for them. An artistic feat for the time.
Tomb of Leopards
Location: Tarquinia, Italy
Date: 475 BCE
Decorated w/ frescos, much more square than other tombs.
Leopards are there to guard the tomb and the register below it is a feast imagery (common among Etruscan art)
Location: Rome, Italy
Date: 500 BCE
Shows two changes in Etruscan themes: Strength and vitality: shown by glaring eyes, snarling face, and general ferocity of the wolf. She is giving her life power to the twins symbolic of Etruscan fierceness and dangerousness.
The stylized repeating motifs of hair is a change similar to the Greek geometric style.
2nd Style of Roman Walls
Artists wanted to dissolve walls, an illusion of viewing an actual landscape.
Atmospheric power system: suggests space beyond.
A square rectangular open space bounded on three sides by colonnades and on the fourth by a basilica. Acted many roles, religious, commercial, political.
People first began meeting in this forum around 800 BCE at the time of the Roman Republic.
Date: 80 CE
Artist: Vespasia and his son Titus
a. k. a. Flavian Amphitheater
design comes from Greek outdoor theaters
had a drainage system that allowed for easy cleanup of blood and water.
Each floor represents one style of architecture moving from the oldest and less intricate on the ground floor (Doric) to the newest (Corinthian) w/ Ionic in the middle.
Shows the ascension of Rome Architecture over time.
Date: 117 - 125 CE
becomes first major domed building in the world
Portico: Uses massive granite Corinthian columns, a copy of Greek architecture
Rotunda dome: the Roman element to this temple. Contains an oculus, or round skylight in the middle.
Dome is coffered, meaning tit has more recessed rectangles in the ceiling. Reduce weight and were originally painted blue and gold to mimic the sky.
Date: 110 CE
A single, free standing column used to commemorate Trajan's victory over the Dacians, Romanian neighbors to the northeast of Rome.
Consists of twisting images that show the events which led to Trajan's victory.
Is a massive frieze in registers but which flow from one into the other, not separated.
Shows detail in trappings that a Roman soldier would have, so it also serves a historical function for modern day scholars to show what life was like as a Roman soldier.
Podium at the bottom shows the spoils brought back by Trajan and contains his ashes.
Engineering an Empire Major Creations
Julius Caesar's Bridge over the Rhine River.
Nero and his feats (Nero's Palace)
Wall across Britain
4th Style of Roman Walls
Ixion Room, House of Vettie's, Pompeii, 70 CE
Crowded compositions, brash colors, lots of different plays of illusion and space, some walls seem to be growing into other ones. Some look like marble, fake painted architecture, other ones are different all mix and match compositions.
The scenes depict still life, mythical stories, portraits, landscapes, etc. all over the walls