Test 2 - Chapters 2 & 3

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32 terms

cognitive complexity

The number of constructs used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to create perceptions.

constructivism

The theory that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures, called schemata.

empathy

The ability to feel with another person or to feel what that person feels in a given situation.

interpretation

The subjective process of evaluating and explaining perceptions.

meaning

The significance we attach to phenomena such as words, actions, people, objects, and events.

mind reading

Assuming that we understand what another person thinks or how another person perceives something.

perception

The process of actively selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and activities.

person-centered perception

The ability to perceive another as a unique and distinct individual apart from social roles and generalizations.

personal constructs

One of four cognitive schemata. A bipolar mental yardstick that allows us to measure people and situations along specific dimensions of judgment.

A mental scale on which we judge a new stimulus by comparing it to our ideal.

prototype

One of four cognitive schemata. A knowledge structure that defines the clearest or most representative example of some category.

An ideal. It is your notion of the most perfect representation of a category.

schemata

Cognitive structures we use to organize and interpret experiences.

4 types are: prototypes,
personal constructs, stereotypes, and scripts.

scripts

One of four cognitive schemata. Defines an expected or appropriate sequence of action in a particular setting.

Our choice of response, determined by our expectation of how people in that group will act

self-fulfilling prophecy

An expectation or judgment of ourselves brought about by our own actions.

self-serving bias

The tendency to attribute our positive actions and successes to stable, global, internal influences that we control and to attribute negative actions and failures to unstable, specific, external influences beyond our control.

standpoint theory

The theory that a culture includes a number of social groups that differently shape the knowledge, identities, and opportunities of members of those groups.

stereotypes

One of four cognitive schemata. A predictive a generalization based on what we believe to be generally true about the group of people in which we have placed her/him.

categorizing the stimulus

Perception consists of 3 processes that are interactive. They are:

selection, organization, interpretation

Selection

choosing which stimuli to attend to.

Organization

the process of making sense of selected stimuli using schemata, a series of stages of thinking that work together to arrive at meaning.

The 4 stages of organization:

prototype, personal construct, stereotype, and script

Interpretation

the subjective process of assigning meaning to our perceptions.

Attributions

Ways we explain why things happen and why people act the way they do, depending upon our understanding of perceived truths.

We explain cause (attributions) in one of 4 ways.

a) Locus is a judgment as to whether the cause lies within the person or without.

b) Stability is a judgment as to whether the cause is permanent or temporary.

c) Scope is a judgment as to whether the reason is always true or only in certain conditions.

d) Responsibility is a judgment as to whether a person has control over the action or not.

attachment styles

Any of several patterns of attachment that result from particular parenting styles that teach children who they are, who others are, and how to approach relationships.

direct definition

Communication that explicitly tells us who we are by specifically labeling us and reacting to our behaviors. Usually occurs first in families and then in interaction with peers and others.

identity scripts

A guide to action based on rules for living and identity. Initially communicated in families, define our roles, how we are to play them, and basic elements in the plot of our lives.

particular others

One source of social perspectives that people use to define themselves and guide how they think, act, and feel. The viewpoints of people who are significant to the self.

perspective of the generalized other

The collection of rules, roles, and attitudes endorsed by the whole social community in which we live.

reflected appraisal

Our perceptions of others'' views of us.

self-sabotage

Self-talk that communicates that we''re no good, we can''t do something, we can''t change, and so forth. Undermines belief in ourselves and motivation to change and grow.

social comparison

Comparing ourselves with others to form judgments of our own talents, abilities, qualities, and so forth.

4 types of attachment styles

secure, fearful, dismissive, anxious ambivalent

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