MicroBiology MidTerm

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microbiology

scientific study of microorganisms and their effects on other organisms

eukaryote

"true nucleus". have a nucleus AND membrane bound organelles

prokaryote

"before nucleus". Unicellular microorganisms that do not have nucleus or organelles BUT still has DNA strands, generally enclosed by peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall and reproduce by asexual binary fission

morphology

scientific study of shape and form without regard to function

3 primary shapes of bacteria cells

1. spherical
2. rod-shaped
3. spiral

Cocci

spherical. Ex. staphylococcus aureus - skin abscess

Bacilli

rod-shaped. Ex. salmonella typhl - typhoid fever

Spiral - 3 types

1. vibrios - comma shaped
2. spirilla -helical
3. spirochetes - helical

pleomorphic

bacteria that DO change shape

monomorphic

do not change shape. Genetically most bacterial cells are monomorphic

Arrangements - when COCCI and BACILLI divide they remain attached to one another in arrangements

when COCCI and BACILLI divide they remain attached to one another in arrangements

Arrangements of Cocci

a. Diplococci - pairs after dividing
b. strepto -chain-like patterns
c. tetrads - divide in 2 planes and remain groups of 4
d. sarcinae - divide in 3 planes and remain attached n cube-like groups of 8
e. staphylococci - cocci that divide in multiple planes and form grape-like clusters

Arrangements of Bacilli

a. diplobacilli - rod shaped bacteria that divide across their short axis and remain in pairs
b. streptobacilli - bacilli that divide across their short access and remain in chains
c. coccobacilli - rod shaped bacteria that are oval and look like cocci

External to Cell wall - glycocalyx

many prokaryote secretes a sticky, gelatinous coating that surrounds that cell wall

Glycocalyx Capsule

1. ONLY when is is organizes and firmly attached externally to the cell wall
2. enhances virulence - ability to cause disease
3. ex. streptococcus pneumoniae - causes pneumococcal pneumonia

phagocytosis

cell eating

Glycocalyx Slime layer

glycolcalyx is unorganized and only loosely attached to the cell wall yet stlll resists phagatosis

motility

motility - motion via flagella

attachment

via pili/fimbriae

motility for spirochetes

axial filaments - bundles of fibrils that arise at ends of cell beneath an outer sheath and spiral around the cell

bacteria

prokaryote organism

Chlamydia

bacterial nonmotile, obligate intracellular parasite

Rickettsia

bacterial obligate intracellular parasite - causes typhus fever via an insect vector

mycoplasma

bacterial CELL with no bacterial cell wall and are the smallest of the free-living bacterial cells

fungal organism

eukarytic organism from Kingdom Fungi

yeasts

unicellular eukarytic organism with distinct nucleus from Kingdom Fungi

molds

multicellular eukarytic organism with distinct nucleus from Kingdom Fungi

protozoa

unicellular eukaryotic first-formed animals from Kingdon Protista

viruses

submicroscopic, acellular, obligate intracellular parasites protected by a capsid protein coat that contain nucleic acid core (EITHER DNA or RNA)

prion

infectious PROTEIN that is resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acids. Causes CJD

3 Domain system

1. Bacteria - prokaryote
2. Archaea - prokaryote
3. Eukarya - fungus, protozoa

5 Kingdom system

1. Prokaryote
2. Protista - protozoa
3. Fungi - yeast, mold
4. Plant
5. Animal

taxonomical hierarchy

1. Domain
2. Kingdom
3. Division
4. Class
5. Order
6. Family
7. Genus
8. Species

Father of microbiology

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

microbiology

study of small organisms

bacteriology

study of bacteria

mycology

study of fungi

virology

study of viruses

3 Domains ARch BAC-EUK

3 domains are: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya

8 DOMAIN KINGDOMS DIVide CLASS ORDER to FAMILY GENUS and SPECIES

Hierarchy: Domains-Kingdoms-Division-Class-Order- Family-Genus-Species

Pro No Nuc Yo DaNA

Prokaryote have no nucleus yet have DNA.

ProCell PEPTo DoGly

Prokaryote have cell walls made of peptidoglycan

EUK Nuc w/ bORGs Pro No!

Eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles Prokaryotes don't.

5 KINGdoms PROK and PROT their FUNG-PaL-ANIMALS

5 kingdoms: Prokaryotes, Protista, Fungi, Plant, Animal

Microbiology

Study of microorganisms and their effect on other organisms

Binomial Nomenclature

Scientific names of organisms. Two names: GENUS and Species.

Eukaryotes

"true nucleus" for DNA

Prokaryotes

"before nucleus". Single cell (unicellular). No true nucleus but still have DNA enclosed by peptidoglycan cell wall. Kingdom prokaryotes. Reproduce via binary FIssion and are 3 shapes: spherical, rod, spiral

Protista

Eukaryotes

Protozoology

Study of protozoa

Rickettsiology

Study of rickettsia

Micro -> Bacteriology -> Rickettsiology

Micro -> Bacteriology -> Rickettsiology

Parasitology

Study of parasites

Immunology

Study of immunity

Bacteria

Domain - Prokaryotes, peptidoglycan cell wall

Chlamydia

Bacterial Nonmotile, obligate, intracellular parasite

Rickettsia

Bacteria obligate intracellular parasite causes diseases like typhus fever.

Mycroplasma

Smallest of free-living bacteria w/ no cell wall.

Fungi

"Eukaryotes, kingdom Fungi,

Protozoan

Unicellular Eukaryotes, first formed animals, kingdom protista

Virus

Submicroscopic acellular obligate parasite with DNA or RNA, surrounded by capsid protein coat

Prion

Resistive infectious protein. Causes CJD

Archaea

Domain - Prokaryote w/o peptidoglycan cell wall

Prokaryote vs Eukaryotes

"Pro- Kingdom Prokaryote, Domain bacteria, Domain archaea

total magnification

multiply OBJective and OCUlar

wavelength relationship of light source and resolution of microscope

shorter the waveength the greater the resolution

2 different stains

Gram (violet and pink) and Acid-Fast (red, blue)

Gram-Positive organisms are

More susceptible to destruction by penicillin, less resistant to penicillin

Gram-negative organisms are

less susceptible to destruction by penecillin, more resistant

which stain used to identify Mycobacterium

Acid-Fast stains 'cause of lipid content. Help in diagnosis of leprosy and tuberculosis

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