All cell parts, particles, and semifluid substances between the plasma membrane and nucleus.
The framework of diverse protein filaments that structurally support, organize, and move the cell and internal structures.
ER, Golgi bodies, and transport vesicles concerned with making protein, lipid assembly, and transporting them to the plasma membrane for export.
gap (communicating) junctions
Protein channels in plasma membrane for rapid flow of ions and small molecules.
organelle that modifies and packages proteins and lipids into vesicles for secretion or use inside cell; UPS center
Hydrophobic lipids with a hydrophilic phosphate group head; arranged tail to tail in two layers in the cell membrane.
thinnest cytoskeletal element; actin subunits for contraction, movement, and structure
largest cytoskeletal subunit; tubulin subunit for shape, growth, motion; move chromosomes during cell division
"tiny kernal"; , The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
strands of fibrous proteins that link cells that line the body cavities (epithelial tissue); prevents solutes from leaking between cells.
small, membrane-bound sacs in cytoplasm that transport or store or hold enzymes for digestion
rough endoplasmic reticulum
covered with ribosomes and begins the process of forming secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of protein
If a cell expands in diameter during growth, its volume will increase more rapidly that surface area will. If cell is too large, it can't move materials in and out very well.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.
The thin outermost boundary of cells; substances must move across it to enter or exit the cell.
A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids; consists of a hydrophilic polar head and two non-polar hydrophobic tails; forms cell membranes.