Pysch 101 first exam

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Comtemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of:

Behavior and mental processes

Who most clearly affirmed that the mind continues to exist after physical death?

Socrates

Socrates and Plato emphasized the importance of ____ as a source of knowledge.

Logic

Socrates and Plato affirmed the importance of:

Innate Ideas

Professor McClure believes that yound children are frequently able to make morally correct decisions because humans are endowed with an inborn knowledge of basic ethical principles. The professor's belief is most consistent with the views of:

Plato

Which philosopher would have been most enthusiastic about modern empiricism?

Aristole

Socrates, Plato and Descartes believed that:

Distinct and seperible

The ideas of Fancis Bacon provided an impetus for what came to be known as:

Empricism

Who suggested that the mind at birth is a blank slate upon which experience writes?

John Locke

The view that knowledge comes from experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation is called:

Empiricism

Wilhem Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of:

Reactions to sensory stimulation

Who used the method of introspection to scientifically identify basic elements of mind?

Edward Titchner

The unreliability of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of:

Structuralism

William James was a prominent American ____.

Functionalist

Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the:

adaptive value of concsious thought

Edward Titchner is to ______ as William James is to _____.

Structuralism, functionalism

Behaviorist dismissed the value of:

introspection

John Watson is to Edward Titchner as ____ is to ____.

observable behavior, inner sensations

Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people's:

Potential for healthy growth

Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their genes or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate reguarding:

Nature vs. Nurture

The hindsight bias refers to the people's tendency to:

Exaggerate to have seen the outcome of past events

The explanatory power of a scienctific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable:

predicitions

A hypothesis is?

A testable prediction

A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as an?

Operational definition

Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances?

Replication

In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confrim the researchers' predictions, pyschologists sometimes?

Decieve participants

Psychologists' personal values and goals:

Create bias observations

The case study is a research method in which?

One person or thing is studied in depth

The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it?

Generalized ability

IN which type of research si a representative rand sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?

Survey

In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that:

It's representative of the population

Correlation refers to the extent to which two variables?

Vary together

Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables?

Correlation Coeffiecent

IN order to represent graphically the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct?

A scatterplot

If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of elementary school students is +0.85, this would indicate that?

It's positive correlation

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?

The number closest to zero

Illusory correlation refers to?

Preception of a relationship that doesn't exist

Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships?

Experiment

In an experimental study of the effects of anxiety on self-esteem, anxiety would be the ____ variable?

Independent

The most frequently occuring score in a distribution of scores is the?

Mode

If the total number of boys and girls born each year is exactly equal, which of the following would be the most likely sequence of boys(b) and girls(g) for the next six months?

All of the above

To fully appreciate the interaction of neural activity, mental processes, and the functioning of human communites it is most necessary to recognize peole are?

biopsychosocial

Dr. Wolski does research on the potentail relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological speciality does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?

Biological

An axon is?

An extension of a neuron that carries information away from the cell body

In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ____ of a single neuron.

Dendrites, to the cell body, to the axon

An action potential is generated by the movement of?

Ions

Resting potential is to action to potential as ____ is to ______.

Polarization, depolarization

Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. Thi indicates that a neuron's reaction is?

All or none

Reuptake refers to the?

Reabsorbtion

A slap on the back is more painful that an a pat because a slap triggers?

More frequent neural impluses

Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter know as?

Acetycholine

Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?

Frontal Lobes

Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulation judgements?

Frontal lobe

Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?

Brain stem

The corpus callosum is a wide band of axon fibers that?

Transmits info between hemispheres

Which part of your brain recieves information as to whether you are moving your legs?

Sensory cortex

The sense of hearing is to the ____ lobes as the sense of touch is to the _____ lobes.

Temporal, Parietal

The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in the extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of?

Visiual perception

To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's?

Amygdala

The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the:

cerebellum

The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionarily oldest to newest is?

Brainstem, limbic system, and cerebral cortex

The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and enviromental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as?

Behavior genetics

A human sperm cell contains?

23 Chromosomes

Chromosomes are contained within?

All cells

A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a?

Gene

The genome is the complete?

Set of genetic material

Identical twins originate from the fertilization of:

Single egg and one sperm

Compared to fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in?

All of the above

The home enviroment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ___ than on their _____.

Religious beliefs, personality traits

Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. The two children most cleary differ in??

Temperment

Heritability refers to the extent to which?

Genetic variations

Compared to enviromentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched enviroments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their?

Synapses

For Children from impoverished enviroments, stimulating educational experiences during early childhood are most likely to?

Prevent degeneration

An awareness that children's temperments influence parents' child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency to?

Blame our parents

Personal space refers to?

Distance we like to maintain around our bodies

Individualism is to collectivism as ______ is to _____.

Independence, interdepence

Female children are more likely to act like tomboys if they were exposed to excess _______ during their prenatal development.

Testosterone

Behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social postion define a?

Role

Gender identity refers to:

Our sense of being male or female

Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the importance of:

Human responsiblity

Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender:

Gender schemas

The process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called:

Transduction

Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color___ and the shortest visible as the color ___.

Red, Violet

Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina?

Dialation of pupils

The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by the?

Iris

Accomodation refers to the:

Lens changing shape

Small distortions in the eye's shape are most likely to affect:

Visual acquity

If images of distant objects are typically focused at a point in front of the retina, a person will:

Be nearsided

Which cells for visual processing are located closest to the back of the retina?

Rods and cones

The blind spot is located in the area of the retinaL

Where the optic nerve leaves the eye

Whcich receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different waveslengths of light?

cones

Rods are:

More sensitive to intensity of light and less sensitive to color

Damage to the fovea would probably have the least effect on visual sensitivity to stimuil.

Dimly illuminated

En route to the visual cortex, neural impluses from the retina are first relayed to the

Thalumus

Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of the ____ theory.

trichromatic/ Young-Helmholtz

According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when both red- and green- sensitive cones are stimulated simutaneously, a person should see?

Yellow

When most people stare first at a blue circle and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the circle appears?

Yellow

According to the opponent-process theory, cells are stimulated by exposure to:

red-green, blue-yellow, black-white

Visual information is processed by ganglion cells:

after its processed by rods and cones, and after processed by bipolar cells

The central focus point in the retina where cones are heavily concentrated is known as the:

Fovea

The opponent-process theory is most useful for explaining the characteristic of:

After images

The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of conciousness during the first half of the last century was:

Behaviorism

Those who emphasized that mood fluctuations may be indicative of seasonal affective disorder are highlighting the importance of:

Biological rhythm

Circadian rhythm refers to:

Pattern of biological functioning of 24 hours

Exposure to bright light causes the:

Pinual gland to decrease melatonin

The increased production of melatonin _____ sleepiness, and the increased production of adenosine _____ sleepiness.

Increases, increases

Our inability to fall asleep early, as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of:

Circadian rhythm

Jordanna has decided to go to bed early. Although her eyes are closed and she's very relaxed, she has not fallen asleep. An EEG is most likely to indicate the presence of :

Alpha waves

Sensations of falling or floating weightlessly (hypnagogic sensations) are most closely associate with ____ sleep.

Stage One

The brain waves associated with REM sleep are more similar to those of:

Stage one sleep

The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every:

90 minutes

A stage hypnotist can best increase the hyponotizability of select audience members by first providing them with a:

Strong expectation

Researchers are most likely to questions the value of hypnosis for:

Enhancing memory

A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simlutaneously with and yet seperately from other thoughts:

Disassociation

The claim the hypnotic phenomena are regulated by normal conscious control processes is associated with the theory that hynosis involves:

Role Playing

Understanding hypnonsis in terms of focused attention, distinctive brain activity, and culturally expected role playing requires and integrated ____ approach.

Biopyschosocial

Anton Mesmer's so-called "animal magnetisim" best illustrated the dynamics of:

Hypnosis

Under hypnosis, Mrs. Mohammed is encouraged by her therapist to vividly experience and describe the details of an argument she had with her father when she was a child. The therapist is employing a technique called:

Age Regression

The modern discovery of hypnosis is generally attributed to:

Mezmer

An attorney wants to know if the details and accuracy of an eyewitness's memory for a crime would be improved under hypnosis. Given the results of relevant research, what should you tell the attorney?

They are not very good

Of the following individuals, who is likely to be the most hypnotically suggestible?

Type B- Outgoing, into role playing, extrovert

Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called _____ drugs.

Psychoactive

The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is and indication of:

Tolerance

The discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of certian drugs is called:

Withdrawl

Unpleasant withdrawl symptoms are indicative of:

Physical dependence

The three categories of psychoactive drugs discussed in the text are depressants, stimulants, and:

Opiates

Psychoactive drugs influence neurotransmission by stimulating, mimicking, or ____ the activity of neurotransmitters.

Inhibiting

In large doses, alcohol is a ____; in small amounts, it is a _____.

Depressant, depressant

Alcohol consumption tends to:

decrease self awareness and feelings of guilt

The use of barbiturates ____ anxiety and _____ sympathetic nervous system acitivity

decreases, decreases

Repeated use of an opiate:

Brain stops producing endorphins

According to the text, learning involves:

A change in behavior due to experience

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machind button with delivery of candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:

Operant conditioning

Conditioning is the process of:

Learning assocations

The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by:

Pavlov

John B. Waston considered himself to be a:

Behaviorist

Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact Natacha currently becomes fearful everytime she smells rubbing alcohol?

Classical Conditioning

The "psychic sensations" that interfered with Pavlov's experiments on digestion were?

COnditioned response

Which of the following is and unconditioned response?

(unlearned response)

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was:

food/meat powder

In aldous Huxley's Brave new world, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a:

Unconditioned stimulus

In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was?

Conditioned response

In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a:

Unconditioned response

A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a:

conditioned response

If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a:

Conditioned stimulus

A real estate agent showed Gavin several picture of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakshore property was a:

Condtionted Stimulus

An organism learns assocations between events it doesn't control during the process of:

Classical conditioning

IN which form of learing is behavior said to be influenced by its consquences?

Operant Conditioning

Learing associations between one's own behavior and resulting events is to ____ as learning associations between events one doesn't control is to ____.

Operant Conditioning, Classical Conditioning

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