Professor McClure believes that yound children are frequently able to make morally correct decisions because humans are endowed with an inborn knowledge of basic ethical principles. The professor's belief is most consistent with the views of:
The view that knowledge comes from experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation is called:
Who used the method of introspection to scientifically identify basic elements of mind?
Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the:
adaptive value of concsious thought
Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people's:
Potential for healthy growth
Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their genes or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate reguarding:
Nature vs. Nurture
The hindsight bias refers to the people's tendency to:
Exaggerate to have seen the outcome of past events
The explanatory power of a scienctific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable:
A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as an?
Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances?
In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confrim the researchers' predictions, pyschologists sometimes?
IN which type of research si a representative rand sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?
In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that:
It's representative of the population
Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables?
IN order to represent graphically the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct?
If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of elementary school students is +0.85, this would indicate that?
It's positive correlation
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?
The number closest to zero
In an experimental study of the effects of anxiety on self-esteem, anxiety would be the ____ variable?
If the total number of boys and girls born each year is exactly equal, which of the following would be the most likely sequence of boys(b) and girls(g) for the next six months?
All of the above
To fully appreciate the interaction of neural activity, mental processes, and the functioning of human communites it is most necessary to recognize peole are?
Dr. Wolski does research on the potentail relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological speciality does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ____ of a single neuron.
Dendrites, to the cell body, to the axon
Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. Thi indicates that a neuron's reaction is?
All or none
A slap on the back is more painful that an a pat because a slap triggers?
More frequent neural impluses
Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter know as?
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulation judgements?
Which part of your brain recieves information as to whether you are moving your legs?
The sense of hearing is to the ____ lobes as the sense of touch is to the _____ lobes.
The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in the extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of?
To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's?
The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionarily oldest to newest is?
Brainstem, limbic system, and cerebral cortex
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and enviromental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as?
The home enviroment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ___ than on their _____.
Religious beliefs, personality traits
Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. The two children most cleary differ in??
Compared to enviromentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched enviroments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their?
For Children from impoverished enviroments, stimulating educational experiences during early childhood are most likely to?
An awareness that children's temperments influence parents' child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency to?
Blame our parents
Female children are more likely to act like tomboys if they were exposed to excess _______ during their prenatal development.
Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the importance of:
Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender:
The process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called:
Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color___ and the shortest visible as the color ___.
If images of distant objects are typically focused at a point in front of the retina, a person will:
Damage to the fovea would probably have the least effect on visual sensitivity to stimuil.
Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of the ____ theory.
According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when both red- and green- sensitive cones are stimulated simutaneously, a person should see?
When most people stare first at a blue circle and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the circle appears?
According to the opponent-process theory, cells are stimulated by exposure to:
red-green, blue-yellow, black-white
Visual information is processed by ganglion cells:
after its processed by rods and cones, and after processed by bipolar cells
The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of conciousness during the first half of the last century was:
Those who emphasized that mood fluctuations may be indicative of seasonal affective disorder are highlighting the importance of:
The increased production of melatonin _____ sleepiness, and the increased production of adenosine _____ sleepiness.
Our inability to fall asleep early, as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of:
Jordanna has decided to go to bed early. Although her eyes are closed and she's very relaxed, she has not fallen asleep. An EEG is most likely to indicate the presence of :
Sensations of falling or floating weightlessly (hypnagogic sensations) are most closely associate with ____ sleep.
A stage hypnotist can best increase the hyponotizability of select audience members by first providing them with a:
A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simlutaneously with and yet seperately from other thoughts:
The claim the hypnotic phenomena are regulated by normal conscious control processes is associated with the theory that hynosis involves:
Understanding hypnonsis in terms of focused attention, distinctive brain activity, and culturally expected role playing requires and integrated ____ approach.
Under hypnosis, Mrs. Mohammed is encouraged by her therapist to vividly experience and describe the details of an argument she had with her father when she was a child. The therapist is employing a technique called:
An attorney wants to know if the details and accuracy of an eyewitness's memory for a crime would be improved under hypnosis. Given the results of relevant research, what should you tell the attorney?
They are not very good
Of the following individuals, who is likely to be the most hypnotically suggestible?
Type B- Outgoing, into role playing, extrovert
The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is and indication of:
The three categories of psychoactive drugs discussed in the text are depressants, stimulants, and:
Psychoactive drugs influence neurotransmission by stimulating, mimicking, or ____ the activity of neurotransmitters.
The use of barbiturates ____ anxiety and _____ sympathetic nervous system acitivity
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machind button with delivery of candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:
Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact Natacha currently becomes fearful everytime she smells rubbing alcohol?
The "psychic sensations" that interfered with Pavlov's experiments on digestion were?
In aldous Huxley's Brave new world, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a:
In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was?
In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a:
If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a:
A real estate agent showed Gavin several picture of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakshore property was a:
An organism learns assocations between events it doesn't control during the process of:
Learing associations between one's own behavior and resulting events is to ____ as learning associations between events one doesn't control is to ____.
Operant Conditioning, Classical Conditioning
An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially he gives the poodle a treat for approching the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of?
Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refused to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of:
Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, was the car is a:
Positive reinforcers___ the reate of operant responding and negative reinforcers _____ the rate of operant responding
Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day afther work because it reduces his stress level. Mason's running habit is maintained by a _____.
A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ___ reinforcer.
Janet has almost finished painting a neighbor's house for which she'll be paid $2000. The fact that she is increasingly unlikely to quit painting as she nears completion of the job best illustrates that operant behavior is strongly influenced by ____ reinforcers..
A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of:
Continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a:
Specific number of responses
Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot carpet he lays rather that with and hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
Paul and Michael sell magazin subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calles he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced by___ schedule, whereas Michael's in reinforced on a ____ schedule.
Fixed ratio, variable ratio
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ____ schedule.
On the first day of calls Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallaces surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ___schedule
Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ____ schedule.
The introduction of a pleasant stimulus ist to _____ as the withdrawl of a pleasant stimulus to a____.
Positive punishment involves introducing a ____ consequencce of certain behavior, and negative punishment involves withdrawing a ____ consquence of a certain behavior.
Th loss of your drivers license as a consquence of drunken driving is to ________ as the reduction of anxiety as a consquence of studying effectively is to _____.
Negative punishment, Negative reinforcement
Negative reinforcers ___ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ____ the rate of operant responding.
For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of:
reinforcement over punishment.
Our ability to learn by witnessing and immiating the behavior of others best illustrates:
Observational, vicrious, and modeling
Reguarding the impact of watching television violence on children, most researchers believe that:
It leads to agressive behavior
Mrs. Ramirez often tell her children that it is important to buckle thier seat belts while riding in the car, but she rarely does herself. Her children with probably learn?
No to wear seat belts and tell other to.
In a well known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflatatble Bobo doll that and adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of.
We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile then when viewing a forwn. This can be most clearly attributed to:
An empathetic husbadn who observe his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity as she is showing. This is:
Learning by imatiating others' behaviors is called ___ learing. The researcher best know for his study this type of learing is ______.
After watching coverage fo the Olypmics on tv recently, Lynn and Susan have beening staging their own "summer games". Whichi of the following best accounts for thier behavior?
As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the ____ nervous system
In a fight or flight situation, epinephrine and glucocorticolds are released from different parts of the adrenal glands and work at different speeds. This indicates that our body's stress response involves.
a 2 track system
Cameron, a 50-year-old electricain, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating tht he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaption syndrome is cameron most likely experiencing?
Research on stressful life events indicates that:
Those who have recently been widowed or divorced are susceptible to illness.
Friedman and Rosenman referred to competative, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities
In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Roseman reported that, compared to Type A men, Type B men were:
Less susceptible to heart attacks
Th stress hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol:
Accelorate build up of plaque on artery walls.
Benard is an ambitious, highly competative corporation lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry over little things. Research shows his heart attack may be linked to:
Mr. Wilson often mistinterperts his normal feelings of hunger as indicative of stomach cancer. Mr. Willson's experience is most likely indiciative of: