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ron gittings

Classical School

People have free will and criminal or lawful solutions to meet needs
Criminal solutions can be attractive
A person will not commit crime if they believe that the pain expected from the punishment is greater than the promised reward (deterrence)
Punishment needs to be severe, certain, and swift to be effective

beccaria

believed in concept of utilitarianism.

believed that in order for punishment to be effective it had to be public, prompt, neccesary,the least possible in the given circumstances, proportionate and dictated by law.

Formed the core of classical criminology.

Compte

Founder of sociology.

Created positivism

Social Positivism

All true knowledge is acquired through direct observation
Statements that could not be backed up by direct observation are invalid
The scientific method must be used if research findings are to be considered valid. Includes steps
Identifying problems
Collecting data
Formatting hypotheses
Conducting experiments
Interpreting results

durkheim

founder of sociological criminology

crime is normal because it is nearly impossible to imagine a society in which criminal behavior is totally absent.

suggested crime can be useful and occasionally helpful to society because it paves the way for social change.

penology

the correction and control of offenders

punishment, sanctions and corrections

conflict theory

Developed by Karl Marx (economic and political forces)

Believed human behavior is due to conflict between those who have all the power and money (bourgeoisie)

They use this power to further their own needs

Believed that the working class (proletariat) was exploited and eventually they would lead a revolt and ultimately end a capitalistic society

Concensus view of crime

Believe the law defines crime;
society agrees about what should be outlawed and the law should be applied equally to all.

deviant behavior causes harm to all

Trial by ordeal

The accused carries a piece of hot iron or walks through fire or plunges their arm in boiling water to get a rock. If they healed quickly they were innocent. If not, they were guilty.

Mens rea

the guilty mind.bad intent

self report surveys

research approach that requires subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts.
Issues:
validity of responses
missing people

cohort research

Research following the criminal behavior over the lifespan of the individual

UCR

Known crimes (reported or discovered by police)
Arrests
Clearance (an arrest or unable to apprehend)
Law enforcement officers killed/assaulted
Age, race, gender

Problems:
A focus on violent crimes
Reporting practices vary
Law enforcement practices/bias
Methodology problems
No federal crimes reported
Not all departments report
Only the most serious offense is reported

NCVS

Provides information about victims: age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, income, educational level
Whether there is a victim offender relationship
Time and place of occurrence
Use of weapons
Injury
Economic consequences

To address the non-reporting issue of the UCR, the federal government sponsors this annual comprehensive, nationwide survey of victimization in the United States
Validity issues: over reporting due to victims' misinterpretation, underreporting due to embarrassment, inability to record personal criminal activity of those interviewed, sampling errors
Murder not included, for obvious reasons

differences between UCR and NCVS

Each source of crime data has strengths and weaknesses
All sources record similar trends regarding personal characteristics of serious offenders, and when and where the crime occurs
Sources are reliable indicators of changes and fluctuations in yearly crime rates

Part 1 crimes

criminal homicide
forcible rape
robbery
aggravated assault
burglary.breaking or entering
larceny/theft
motor vehicle theft
arson

crime trends and birth rates

Some criminologists believe that crime rates may eventually rise as the number of teens in population increases
The aging of the population may offset this trend, large number of senior citizens will produce a lower crime rate
Most agree that the age structure of society is one of the most important determinants of crime rates, however the economy, technology change, and social factors help moderate the crime rate

age and crime

There is general agreement that age is related to criminality
Regardless of economic status, marital status, race, sex, and so on, younger people commit crime more often than their older peers
The research indicates this relationship has been stable across time periods, from 1935 to present
Young people are arrested at a disproportionate rate to their numbers in the population
They account for 6% of the population, however they account for about 25% of serious crime arrests

expressive crimes

such as rape and assault, as a result of their rage, frustration, and anger against society

differences in male/female crime rates

Male crime rates are much higher than those of females
Victims report that their assailants were male in more than 80% of all violent crimes
Explaining gender differences:
Masculinity hypothesis
Chivalry hypothesis
Socialization and development
Cognitive differences
Feminist views

victimology

The study of the victim's role in criminal events

siblicide

killing siblings

elders as victims

Young people have a much higher victimization rate
Victim risk rapidly diminishes after age 25
By age 65 chances of being victimized greatly decrease
1% of violent victimizations
With increases in reports of elder abuse, victimization rates for the elderly will increase
More likely to be victims of crimes such as
Frauds and scams
Purse snatching

active and passive precipitation

'fighting words'; being 'provocative'

passive precipitation

unknowingly becomes a threat or somehow encourages the attacker

routine activites theory

The view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors:

Suitable targets
objects of crime that are attractive and readily available

Absence of capable guardians
effective deterrents to crime, such as police

Presence of motivated offenders
people willing and able to commit crimes

evidence:
Argued that crime rates increased between 1960 and 1980 because females entered the workplace
Increased drug usage in the 1980s created more motivated offenders
Decline in crime rates since the 1990s may be a result of the improved economy

victim-witness assistance programs

Victim Compensation
Victim Advocates
Victim Counseling
Public Education
Victim-offender reconciliation
Victim Impact Statements

Crime Victims Bill of Rights

To be notified of proceedings and the status of the defendant
To be present at criminal justice proceedings
To make a statement at sentencing and to receive restitution from a convicted offender
To be consulted before a case is dismissed or a plea agreement entered
To a speedy trial
To keep the victim's contact information confidential

Rational choice theory

Law-violating behavior is the product of careful thought and planning
Offenders choose crime after considering both personal and situational factors
The reasoning criminal evaluates:
the risk of apprehension,
the seriousness of the expected punishment,
the potential value or benefit of the criminal enterprise,
his/her ability to succeed, and
the need for criminal gain

permeable neighborhoods

easily accessible and easy to escape

general deterrence

A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties, convincing the potential law violator that the pains associated with crime outweigh its benefits
Certainty of punishment, if probability of arrest, conviction, and sanctioning could be increased, crime rates should decline
The greater the severity, certainty, and speed of legal sanctions, the lower the crime rate

specific deterence

The view that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts.

Does not deter criminals, may increase the likelyhood of repeat offenders

3 components of deterrence theory

Rationality
Certainty, Severity, and Speed
Some offenders are more "deterrable" than others

Problems with 3 strikes

-most 3 times losers are on the verge of aging out of crime anyway
-current sentances for violent crimes are already severe
-an expanding prison pop. will drive up prison costs
-racial disparity in sentancing
-officers would be in danger b/c of 2 time offenders resisting
-prison pop. probably already contains the highest-frequency criminals

informal sanctions

Spontaneous, unofficial expressions of approval or disapproval that are not backed by the force of law.

just desserts

A model of criminal sentencing that holds that criminal offenders deserve the punishment they receive at the hands of the law and that punishments should be appropriate to the type and severity of the crime committed.

sheldon

Developed somatotype school

Beleived a criminal's physique makes him/her more susceptible to particular types of antisocial behavior.

Body types

Mesomorphs
Well developed muscles/athletic appearance
Active, aggressive, sometimes violent
Most likely to become criminals
Endomorphs
Heavy builds and slow moving
Known for lethargic behavior
Unlikely to engage in violent crime
More likely to be involved with less strenuous criminal acts
Ectomorphs
Tall/Thin
Introverted
Less social/more intellectual

equipotentiality

The view that all humans are born with equal potential to learn and achieve.

Freud - elements of personality

Id
Primitive part of mental make-up that exists at birth
Requires instant gratification
Operates according to the pleasure principle

Ego
Develops early in life as children learn
Helps compensate for the demands of the id
Operates according to the reality principle

Superego
Develops later
Considered the moral aspect of the personality
Acts as the conscience, forces the ego to control the id

Freud

Sigmund Freud developed psychodynamic psychology
Focus is on instinctive drives and forces and the importance of developmental processes in shaping personality
Human personality has three parts and through their interaction some criminals may emerge
The roots of behavioral problems develop in the early years of life

Culture of poverty

suggests that the crushing lifestyle of lower-class areas produces a culture which is passed from one generation to the next

social class

segment of population whose members are at a reletively similar economic level and who share attitudes, values, norms, and an identifiable lifestyle.

social disorganization

Branch of social structure theory that focuses on the breakdown of institutions such as the family, school, and employment in inner-city neighborhoods

Types of social disorganization theory:
Shaw and McKay's concentric zones theory
Social ecology theory

transitional neighborhoods

an area undergoing a shift in population and structure, usually from middle class residential to lower-class mixed use.

Strain Theory - merton

Branch of social structure theory that sees crime as a function of the conflict between people's goals and the means available to obtain these goals
Types of strain theory include:
The Concept of Anomie
Macro-Level Theory: Institutional Anomie Theory
Micro-Level Theory: General Strain Theory

focal concerns of lower class

Citizens who obey the street rules of lower class life (focal concerns)
Clinging to lower class focal concerns promotes illegal or violent behavior
Toughness, street smarts, excitement
Identifies the core values of lower class culture and shows their association to crime

Trouble, Toughness, Smartness, Excitement, Fate, Autonomy

differential association

Criminal behavior is learned
Learning is a by-product of interaction
Learning occurs within intimate groups
Criminal techniques are learned
Perceptions of legal code influence motives and drives
Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity
The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms involved in any other learning process
Criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values but it is not excused by those general needs and values because noncriminal behavior is also an expression of those same needs and values

Criticisms of Differential Association Theory

Fails to account for the origin of criminal definitions
Assumes criminal and delinquent acts are rational and systematic
Tautological (circular in reasoning)

Techniques of neutralization

Denial of responsibility (really wasn't my fault)
Denial of injury (no real harm done)
Denial of the victim (the 'victim' deserved it)
Condemnation of the condemners (system blaming)
Appeal to higher loyalties (in-group takes precedence)

The social bond

Links the onset of criminality to the weakening of the ties that bind people to society
Assumes that everyone is potentially a law violator
They are kept under control because they fear illegal behavior will damage their relationships
Without social bonds people are more likely to commit crime
The social bond has four main elements:
Attachment
Commitment
Involvement
Belief

labels and stigma

Labels produce a stigma
Labeled individuals may join deviant cliques
After someone is labeled, people begin to reconstruct the culprit's identity so the act and the label become understandable
Dramatization of evil

primary deviance

a norm violation or crime with little or no long-term influence on the violator

secondary deviance

is a norm violation or crime that comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents, who apply a negative label with long-term consequences for the violator's self-identity and social interactions

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