In the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans—mainly wealthy landowners and nobles—who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe. Church Authority.
Believed in enlightened ideas, natural rights, equality-middle class, written constitution, no monarchy, social reforms. laissez-faire, Universal manhood suffrage.
Believe in uniting people who share a common history and culture. Self-rule, independence, self-determination and autonomy.
Universal Manhood Suffrage
Principle that every man had the right to vote, regardless of whether he owned property.
System of thought and belief
People who wanted some further reform but not as much as the radicals.
Declared an independent kingdom in 1830 under the guarantee of the three powers after fighting the Turks and having assistance from other european powers
French liberals who wanted the absolute monarchy; supported Charles X
When the state of the economy declines.
The name given to Louis Philippe because he was plain spoken and owed his throne to the people
The revolts in France where workers, students, and radicals rioted and deomonstrator clashed with troops under Louis Philippe.
These were the French workers' revolts in 1848 after the closure of the National Workshops which led to a new constitution demanding a strong executive, which led to the rise of Louis Napoleon.
Was the first president of the French Republic (for two terms), was also the last emperor. As emperor, he was called Napoleon III and he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Revolutions of 1830
France, revolt against Charles X; new king with limited power, new constitution, vote given to many in middle class. Belgium gained independence from Dutch, Greece gained independence from the Ottomans, Poland and Italian states-failed
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
In the colonial era, a person born in Spain and residing in the New World. Top of social system.
in Spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents
Jose de San Martin
Leader who helped win independence for Chile and Argentina.
Latin American Revolutions
Political revolutions in various Latin American countries beginning in the late 18th century. These revolutions were aimed at overthrowing the European powers that controlled these nations. Many were successful, but few achieved the success of the American Revolution.