Redox reaction/ Oxidation-Reduction reaction
A chemical reaction in which electrons are lost from one substance (oxidation) and added to another (reduction). O & R always occur together
The loss of electrons from one substance
The addition of electron to another substance
An enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction during which one or more hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule (NADH & FADH)
NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
A coenzyme that can accept electrons during the redox reactions of cellular metabolism. An organic molecule that cells make from the vitamin niacin.
Electron transport chain
A series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP; located in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, and the plasma membranes of prokaryotes
1st step, occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid. It is the multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate (net gain of 2 ATP)
Citric acid cycle (Kreb cycle)
2nd step, occurs in the matrix of mitochondria and supplies most of the NADH molecules that carry energy to the electron transport chains. The metabolic cycle fueled by acetyl CoA formed after glycolysis in cellular respiration. chemical reactions complete the metabolic breakdown of glusoce molecules to carbon dioxide
3rd step. The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain~ involves the electron transport chain and a process known as chemiosmosis. NADH and FADH2 shuttle elctrons to the electron transport chain embedded in the inner mitochondrion membrane. Energy released by the downhill fall of electrons from NADH and FADH2 to O2 to phosphorylate ADP
Energy-coupling mechanics that uses the energy of hydrogen ion (H+) gradients across membranes to phosphorylate ADP; powers most ATP synthesis in cells ~ during oxidative phosphorylation
A cluster of several membrane proteins that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP
The formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an orgainc molecule
One of the compounds that form between the inital reactant and the final product in a metabolic pathway, such as between glucose and pyruvate in glycolysis.
The entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a frament of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme
Lactic acid fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no releases of carbon dioxide
The conversion of pyruvate from glycolysis to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
An organizm that only carries out fermentation; such organisms cannot use oxygen and also may be poisoned by it.
An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but that switches to fermentation when oxygen is absent.
The energy of sunlight is used to rearrange the atoms of CO2 and H2O to produce glucose and O2
In cellular respiration...
O2 is consumed as glucose is broken down to CO2 and H2O; the cell captures the energy released in ATP
C6H12O6 (glucose)+ 6 O2 (oxygen) >>>
6 CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6 H2O (water) + ATPs
Cellular respiration can produce...
38 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule, representing about 40% of the energy in glucose
Cellular respiration provides energy...
For body maintenance and the energy for voluntary activities
Energy units, 1 kilocalorie can raise the temp. of water by 1C
The average adult neededs
2200 kcal of energy per day
Key players in the process of oxidizing glucose
Dehydrogenase and NAD+ are used to shuttle electrons in redox reactions
The first step
The transfer of electrons from an organic molecule to NAD+ to form NADH
The electron transport chain involves...
A series of redox reactions in which electrons pass from carrier to carrier down to oxygen
Glycolysis begins with
A single molecule of glucose and concludes with two molecules of pyruvate. As these reaction occur, the cell reduces two molecules of NAD+, forming two molecules of NADH, and produces two molecules of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation
Glycolysis step 1-3
A fuel molecule is energized using 2 ATP
Glycolysis Step 4
A six-carbon intermedicate splits into two three-carbon intermediates
Glycolysis step 5
A redox reaction generates NADH
Glycolysis step 6-9
4 ATP and 2 pyruvate are produced
Citric acid cycle step 1
Acetyl CoA stokes the furnace
Pyruvate is groomed
For the citric acid cycle. It is made into acetyl CoA
Citric acid cycle step 2-3
NADH, ATP, and CO2 are generated during redox reactions
Citric acid cycle step 4-5
Redox reactions generate FADH2, NADH (6 total) and ATP (2 total)
Oxidative phosphorylation (basics)
The energy is derived from redox reactions of the electron transport chain is used to phosphorylate ADP (makes 34 ATP)