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motivation

the drive to seek a goal, such as food, water, or friends

emotion

a state of the body causing feelings, such as of hope, love, or fear

set point

the body-regulating mechanism that determines a person's typical weight

goal

the target of a set of behaviors

drives

forces that push an organism into action to reach a goal

curiosity motive

a drive that moves a person to seek new and different things

manipulation motive

a drive that moves a person to handle and use objects in the environment

intrinsic motivation

motivation that comes from within the individual

extrinsic motivation

motivation that comes from outside the individual

contact comfort

the satisfaction obtained from pleasant, soft physical stimulation

Harry Harlow

Studied monkies; 2 fake mothers: wire mother with bottle and terry cloth mother; monkies ran to cloth mom when scared; contact comfort

hierarchy of needs

a system that ranks human needs one above the other, with most basic needs for physical survival at the bottom of the pyramid; proposed by psychologist Abraham Maslow; Phy, Safe, Bel,Self-e, Self-a

physiological needs

needs at the bottom of maslow's hierarchy: hunger and thirst

safety needs

needs at the second level of maslow's hierarchy: shelter, nest egg of money

belongingness needs

needs at the third level of maslow's hierarchy: friendship, closeness with another

self-esteem needs

needs at the fourth level of maslow's hierarchy: liking and respecting yourself, feeling important and useful

self-actualization needs

needs at the top of maslow's hierarchy: establishing meaningful goals and a purpose in life

opponent-process theory

theory that the presence of one emotion triggers its opposite, which then emerges somewhat later

emotional intelligence

the ability to properly feel, deal with, and recognize emotions

James-Lange theory

theory of emotion proposing that first the body responds and then one feels the emotion

Cannon-Bard theory

theory of emotion proposing that the bodily reaction and the emotional response to an event occur at the same time

cognitive theory

theory of emotion proposed by Stanley Schachter; it holds that people label a bodily response by giving it the name of the emotion they think they are feeling

classical conditioning

Ivan Pavlov's method of conditioning, in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus

stimulus

anything that elicits a response

response

a reaction to a stimulus

Unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus that automatically elicits a response, as meat causes salivation

Unconditioned response

an automatic response to a particular natural stimulus, such as salivation to meat

Conditioned stimulus

a previously neutral stimulus that has been associated with a natural (or unconditioned) stimulus

Conditioned response

a response to a stimulus that is brought about by learning - for example, salivating at the word pickle; always the same as unconditioned response

stimulus generalization

process in which a response spreads from one specific stimulus to other stimuli that resemble the original

extinction

the gradual loss of an association over time

spontaneous recovery

the sudden reappearance of an extinguished response

operant conditioning

conditioning that results from the individual's actions and the consequences they cause; B.F. Skinner - bedroom pulley

reinforcement

something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that response

primary reinforcement

something necessary for psychological or physical survival that is used as a reward

secondary reinforcement

anything that comes to represent a primary reinforcer, such as money

positive reinforcement

reinforcement that involves strengthening the tendency to repeat a response by following it with the addition of something pleasant

negative reinforcement

reinforcement that involves strengthening a response by following it with the removal of something unpleasant

punishment

the process of weakening a response by following it with unpleasant consequences

generalization

a behavior that spreads from one situation to a similar one

discrimination learning

learning to tell the difference between one event or object and another; the reverse of generalization

shaping

the process of gradually refining a response by successively reinforcing closer approximations of it

chaining

reinforcing the connection between the parts of a sequence

schedules of reinforcement

different methods of reinforcing

variable ratio schedule

shedule in which reinforcement occurs after a desired act is performed a specific but variable number of times

fixed ratio schedule

schedule in which reinforcement occurs after a desired act is performed a fixed number of times

variable interval schedule

schedule in which reinforcement occurs after a desired act is performed following a variable amount of time

fixed interval schedule

schedule in which reinforcement occurs after a desired act is performed following a fixed amount of time

social learning

learning from the behavior of others; used by Albert Bandura

observational learning

a form a social learning in which the organism observes and imitates the behavior of others

cognitive approach

an approach to the study of learning that emphasizes abstract mental processes and previous knowledge

latent learning

learning that is not obvious but goes on under the surface

cognitive map

a mental image of where one is located in space

Personality

a person's broad, long-lasting patterns of behavior

psycholanalytic

a theory that personality is based on impulses and needs in the unconscious; Freud, Jung

unconscious

according to psychoanalytic belief, the part of the mind that is beyond consciousness. Although we are unaware of its contents, they strongly affect our behavior; Freud's term

free association

Freudian process in which a person says everything that appears in is or her mind, even if ideas or images seem unconnected

repression

the process of pushing the needs and desires that cause guilt into the unconscious; Freud

libido

Freudian term for internal energy forces that continuously seek discharge; Freud

id

Freudian psychological unit containing basic needs and drives

ego

Freudian psychological unit that is based in reality; the 'self' that allows controlled id expression within the boundaries set by the superego

superego

Freudian psychological unit roughly synonymous with the conscience

archetypes

Jung's term for inherited universal human concepts

collective unconscious

Jung's term for the portion of a person that contains ideas or archetypes (such as hero, mother, and so on) shared by the whole human race

persona

Jung's term for a 'mask' people wear to hide what they really are or feel

neo-Freudians

those psychoanalysts who broke away from Freud to emphasize social forces in the unconscious; Horney, Adler, Erickson

Behaviorism

a personality theory that focuses on overt acts or behaviors; Watson, Skinner, Bandura

reinforcements

events that follow responses and strengthen the tendency to repeat those responses

modeing

Bandura's term for learning by imitating others; Bandura

Humanism

a personality theory that emphasizes the positive potential of the person; Rogers, Maslow

Ideal self

Roger's term for the goal of each person's development; the self each person would like to be in

fully functioning individual

Roger's term for someone who has become what he or she should be

self-actualized

Maslow's term for the state of having brought to life the full potential of out skills

personality traits

more or less permanent personality chracteristics

cardinal traits

Allport's term for very strong personality characteristics that affect most of what a person does

central traits

Allport's term for personality traits that are highly characteristic of a person

secondary traits

Allport's term for weak personality traits that appear only on occasion

surface traits

Cattell's term for characteristics that can be easily observed by others

source traits

Cattell's term for personality traits that underlie surface behavior

Extraversion

Eysenck's term for the personality dimension of being outgoing and sociable

emotional stability

Eysenck's term for the personality dimension that concerns how much a person is affected by feelings

psychological test

systematic measure of what people know; how they act, think, and feel; or what their goals are

standardization

the process of developing clear directions for taking, scoring, and interpreting a test; describe how well a test is made

norms

patterns of test answers from different types of peoples; describe how well a test is made

validity

the extent of which a test measures what it is supposed to measure; describe how well a test is made

reliability

measure of a test's consistency; describe how well a test is made

personality inventory

a list of items about a person's beliefs, habits, needs, and desires; 1st kind of test

MMPI-2

latest version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the most widely used personality inventory

California Psychological Inventory (CPI)

personality inventory most often used in schools

Projective tests

tests measuring inner feelings elicited by a vague stimulus, such as an ink blot or an unclear picture; 2nd kind of test

Rorschach test

an ink blot projective test developed by Hermann Roschach

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective test using unclear pictures about which people make up stories

aptitude

one's special skills

aptitude tests

tests that measure one's special skills (in carpentry, medicine, and so forth); 3rd kind of test

achievement tests

tests that measure the amount of specific material remembered from the classroom; 4th kind of test

Scholastic assessment test (SAT)

test designed to measure ability to do college work

vocational interest test

a test that attempts to predict what occupational area an individual will like; 5th kind of test

strong-campbell interest inventory

the most widely used vocational interest test; based on answers of people successful in certain fields

halo effect

the situation in which a person who has one positive characteristic is assumed to have other positive traits; interviews

reverse halo

the situation in which a person with one negative characteristic is assumed to have other negative traits; interviews

standoutishness

doing or wearing something that is so startling it distracts observers from noticing one's real abilities; interviews

situational assessment

the process of looking at how the circumstances surrounding an event influence people responding to that event; interviews

frustration

the process by which we are blocked or hindered from reaching goals

conflict

a problem that demands a choice between alternatives

approach-approach conflict

a conflict involving a choice between 2 attractive alternatives

approach-avoidance conflict

a conflict involving a situation with both good and bad features

avoidance-avoidance conflict

a conflict involving a choice between 2 unattractive alternatives

double approach-avoidance conflict

a conflict involving a choice between alternatives, both of which have good and bad parts

anxiety

the feeling that something is wrong and disaster is imminent

stress

the physical strain that results from demands or changes in the environment

eustress

stress that motivates us to do something desirable

distress

stress that is overwhelming or that causes problems

type A personality

personality type associated with people who are always operating at full speed, are impatient, and are filled with distress

type B personality

personality type associated with people who are open to change, are flexible, enjoy life, and have low levels of stress

self-concepts

the images we have of ourselves

self-esteem

the degree to which we think we are worthwhile

defense mechanisms

psychological distortions we use to remain psychologically stable, or in balance

repression

the process of pushing a painful event or thought out of consciousness

denial

the process of refusing to admit that there is a problem

displacement

the process of venting our feelings on something or someone other than the true or original target

reaction formation

the process of expressing the opposite of what we feel

intellectualization

the process of removing our feelings about an event and discussing it in a coolly rational and unemotional way

projection

the process of attributing our thoughts to someone else

sublimation

the process of channeling emotional energy into constructive or creative activities

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM - IV)

a book published by the American Psychiatric Association that classifies the symptoms of mental disorders into formal categories

attention deficit /hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a childhood disorder characterized by inattention, distractibility, impulsiveness, and/or excessive activity, and restlessness

autistic disorder

a childhood disorder characterized by a failure to develop normal patterns of communication, social interactions, and emotional responses

echolalia

an autistic system in which the person 'echoes,' or repeats, what has just been said

anxiety disorder

disorder whose major symptom is anxiety

panic disorder

a type of anxiety disorder characterized by frequent and overwhelming attacks of anxiety that are not associated with specific objects or events

phobic disorder

a type of anxiety disorder in which a person becomes disabled and overwhelmed by fear in the presence of certain objects or events. Examples include specific phobia and agoraphobia

specific phobia

a phobic disorder associated with a specific object or situation, such as snakes, dogs, elevators, and heights

agoraphobia

the fear of leaving a familiar environment, especially home

OCD

an anxiety disorder characterized by both thoughts (obsession) and ritualized, repetitive behavior (compulsion)

somatoform disorder

a condition in which psychological issues are expressed in bodily symptoms in the absence of any real physical problem

conversion disorder

a somatoform disorder in which a serious psychological trauma is changed into a symbolic physical dysfunction

hypochondriasis

a somatoform disorder characterized by feeling excessive concern about one's health and exaggerating the seriousness of minor physical complaints

dissociative disorder

disorders in which memory of a part of one's life becomes disconnected from other parts; amnesia, fugue, and dissociative identity disorder are examples

amnesia

a dissociative disorder in which traumatic events seem to disappear from memory

selective forgetting

forgetting only things that are very traumatic

fugue

a dissociative disorder in which a person forgets his or her current life and starts a new one somewhere else

dissociative identity disorder

a dissociative identity disorder in which a person divides himself or herself into separate personalities that can act independently

mood disorders

disorders characterized by emotional states; include depression and mania

dysthymic disorder

a mood disorder involving a moderate depression

major depression

severe depression; involves loss of appetite, lack of energy, hopelessness, and suicidal thoughts

mania

a mood disorder involving extreme agitation, restlessness, rapid speech, and trouble concentrating

flight of ideas

a confusing state in which thoughts and speech go in all directions with no unifying concept

bipolar disorder

a mood disorder involving high and low moods

learned helplessness

a condition in which a person has accepted the generalized idea that he or she can do nothing to help himself or herself

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