Combination of sets from all over quizlet, containing practice questions and study cards for NCLEX preparation on the topic of pharmacology

1 tsp to ml

5 ml

tbsp to ml

15 ml

1 oz to ml

30 ml

1 cup (8 oz) to ml

240 ml

1 soda (12 oz) to ml

360 ml

1 pint to ml

480 ml

1 quart to ml

960 ml

1 mg to ng

1000 ng

1g to mg

1000 mg

1 gr to mg

60 mg

1 kg to lb

2.2 lb

1 L to kg

1 kg

Andrenergics Med Names

Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Epinephrine, Dobutamine

Andrenergics Actions

Stimulates Beta-2 Receptors in Lungs (causes brochdilation)

Andrenergics Uses

COPD, Cardiac Arrest

Andrenergics Side Effects

Dysrhythmias, Tremors, Anticholinergic Effects (dry mouth, urinary retention)

Andrenergics Nursing Considerations

Monitor B/P, Monitor Peripheral Pluses, Check Output

Antianxiety Med Names

Librium, Xanax, Ativan, Vistaril, Equanil

Antianxiety Actions

affect neurotransmitters (CNS depressent)

Antianxiety Uses

anxiety disorders, manic episodes, panic attacks

Antianxiety Side Effects

Sedatiosn, confustion, hepatic dysfunction

Benzodiazepines

-pams

Antianxiety Nursing Considerations

Potential for addiction/overdose, Avoid Alcohol, Monitor LFT

Antacids Med Names

MOM, Maalox, Amphojel

Antacids Action

neutralize gastric acids

Antacids Uses

peptic ulcer, indigestion, reflex esophagitis

Antacids Side Effects

constipation, diarrhea, acid rebound

Antacids Nursing Consideration

Interferes with absorption of antibiotics, iron preps, INH, oral contraceptives
Monitor bowel functions

Antidysrhythmics Med Names

Atropine, Lidocaine, Pronestyl, Quinidine, Isuprel

Antidysrhythmics Action

interfere with electrical exciablility of heart

Antidysrhythmics Uses

A-Fib and flutter, tachycardia, PVCs

Antidysrhythmics Side Effects

Lightheadedness, hypotension, bradycardia, urnary retention

Antidysrhythmics Nursing Consideration

Monitor VS and Cardiac Rhythm

Beta Blockers

-lol
can cause bronchspasms
airway is a consideration

Antibiotics General

Allergies, Super Infections, Organ Toxicity

Antibiotics Teaching

Take until gone
Do culture and sensitivity first
Encourage fluids
Check expiration date

Antibiotics: Aminoglycosides Med Names

Gentamycin, Neomycin, Streptomycin, Tobramycin

Antibiotics: Aminoglycosides Action

inhibits protein synthesis in gram-negative bacteria

Antibiotics: Aminoglycosides Uses

Pseudomonas, E. coli

Antibiotics: Aminoglycosides Side Effects

ototoxicity, nephrotoxicty, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

Antibiotics: Aminoglycosides Nursing Considerations

Checking 8th cranial nerve (hearing)
Check Renal Function (BUN)
Take for 7-10 days
Encourage Fluids (3,000ml/day when pushing)

Antibiotics: Cephalosporins Med Names

Ceclor, Ancef, Keflex, Rocephin, Mefoxin

Antibiotics: Cephalosporins Actions

inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall

Antibiotics: Cephalosporins Uses

tonsillitis, otitis media, peri-operative prophylaxis, meningitis

Antibiotics: Cephalosporins Side Effects

Bone Marrow Depression, Superinfections, Rash

Antibiotics: Cephalosporins Nursing Consideration

Take w food
Cross allergy with PCN
Avoid alcohol
Obtain Culture and Sensitivity before first dose

Antibiotics: Aminoglycosides

-mycin

Antibiotics: Cephalosporins

Ceph-, Cef, Kef

Antibiotics: Fluoroquinolones Med Names

Cipro

Antibiotics: Fluoroquinolones Actions

interferes with DNA replication in gram-negative bacteria

Antibiotics: Fluoroquinolones Uses

E. coli, Pseudomonas, S. aureus

Antibiotics: Fluoroquinolones Side Effects

diarrhea, decreased WBC and hematocrit, elevated liver enzymes (AST ALT), elevated alkaline phosphatase

Antibiotics: Fluoroquinolones Nursing Consideration

Culture and Sensity before starting therapy
Encourage Fluids (3000ml.day)
Take 1 h before or 2 h after meals

Antibiotics: Macrolide Med Names

erthromycin, Cleocin (clindamycin)

Antibiotics: Macrolide Actions

binds to cell membrane and changes protein function

Antibiotics: Macrolide Uses

acute infections, acne, URI, prophylaxis before dental procedures if allergic to PCN

Antibiotics: Macrolide Side Effects

diarrhea, confusion, hepatotoxicity, superinfections

Antibiotics: Macrolide Nursing Consderations

Take 1 h before or 2-3 h after meals
Monitor LFT
Take w full glass of water

Antibiotics: Penicillins Med Names

amoxicillin, ampicillin, augmentin

Antibiotics: Penicillins Actions

inhibits synthesis of cell wall

Antibiotics: Penicillins Uses

moderate to severe infections, syphilis, gonococcus infections, Lyme disease

Antibiotics: Penicillins Side Effect

stomatitis, diarrhea, allergic reactions, renal and hepatic changes

Antibiotics: Penicillins Nursing Considerations

Check for hypersensitivity
Give 1-2 h before or 2-3 h after meals
Cross allergy to cephalosporins

Antibiotics: Sulfonamides Med Names

Gantrisin, Bactrim, Azulfidine

Antibiotics: Sulfonamides Actions

anatgonize essential component of folic acid synthesis

Antibiotics: Sulfonamides Uses

ulcerative colitis, Crohn's, otitis media, UTIs

Antibiotics: Sulfonamides Side Effects

peripheral neuropathy, crystalluria, photosensitivity, GI upset, stomatitis

Antibiotics: Sulfonamides Nursing Considerations

Take with meals
Encourage fluids
Good mouth care

Antibiotics: Tetracyclines Med Names

Vibramycin, Panmycin

Antibiotics: Tetracyclines Actions

inhibits protein syntheis

Antibiotics: Tetracyclines Uses

infections, acne, prophylaxis for ophthalmia neonatorum

Antibiotics: Tetracyclines Side Effects

discoloration of primary teeth if taken by the mother during pregnancy, glossitis, rash, phototoxic reaction

Antibiotics: Tetracyclines Nursing Consideration

Take 1 h before or 2-3 after meals
Do not take antacid, mile, iron
SUNBLOCK - avoid sunlight
Monitor renal function
Note Expiration Date - Toxic after date

Furadantin (nitrofurantoin) Uses

UTIs

Furadantin (nitrofurantoin) Side Effects

asthma attacks, diarrhea

Furadantin (nitrofurantoin) Nursing Considerations

Anti-infective
Give w food or milk
Monitor pulmonary status
Take w/ cranberry juice

Pyridium Uses

UTIs

Pyridium Side Effects

Headache, Vertigo, Changes urine orange

Pyridium Nursing Considerations

Taken with meals
Urinary tract analgesic

Anti Impotence (Erectile Dysfunction) Med Names

Viagra, Levitra, Cialis

Anti Impotence Side Effects

headaches, hypotension, priapism

Anti Impotence Contraindications

nitrates, alpha blockers

Anti Impotence Nursing Considerations

can not take with grapefruit juice
call PCP if erection lasting longer than 4 h

Anticholinergics Med Names

Pro-Banthine, Atropine, Scopace

Anticholinergics Actions

dilates pupil, causes bronchodialtion adn decreased secreations, decreases mobility and GI secreations

Anticholinergics Uses

opthalmic exam, motion sickness, pre-operative

Anticholinergics Side Effects

blurred vision, dry mouth, urinary retention, change in heart rate

Anticholinergics Nursing Considerations

Monitor output
Contraindicated with glaucoma
Give 30 min before meals, at bedtime or 2 hours after meals

Anticoagulant Coumadin Action

interferes with synthesis of vitamin 5-dependent clotting factors

Anticoagulant Heparin Action

blocks conversion of prothrobin to thrombin

Anticoagulant Heparin Uses

pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, prophylaxis after acute MI

Anticoagulant Heparin Side Effect

hematuria, tissue irritation

Anticoagulant Heparin Nursing Considerations

Monitor clotting time or PTT
Normal 20-45 sec
Therapeutic level 1.5-2.5 times control
Antagonist- protmaine sulfate
Give SC or IV - Do NOT aspirate or Massage!

Anticoagulant Coumadin Uses

pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, prophylaxis after acute MI

Anticoagulant Coumadin Side Effects

Hemorrhage, alopecia

Anticoagulant Coumadin Nursing Considerations

Monitor PT
Normal 9-12 sec
Therapeutic level 1.5 times control
Antagonist- Vit K
Monitor for bleeding
Give PO

Anticonvulsants Med Names

Dilantin, Luminal, Depakote, Tegretol, Klonopin

Anticonvulsants Actions

decreases flow of calcium and sodium across neuronal membranes

Anticonvulsants Uses

seizures

Anticonvulsants Side Effects

Respiratory depression, aplastic anemia, gingival hypertrophy, ataxia

Anticonvulsants Nursing Considerations

Don't d/c abruptly
Monitor I&O
Caution with use of meds that lower seizure thresholds (ex. MOAIs, antipyscotic)
No alcohol
Urine is pink/reddish

Dilantin - Anticonvulsant

Don't give too fast - cardiac arrest
NEVER mix with another med
Urine Pink

Mag Sulfate - Anticonvulsant

Common given in OB
Deep Tendon Reflexes be evaluated
SE: Resp Arrest

Depakote - Anticonvulsant

No carbonated beverages

Antidepressants: MAOIs Med Names

Marplan, Parnate, Nardil

Antidepressants: MAOIs Action

causes increased concentration of neurotransmitters

Antidepressants: MAOIs Uses

depression, chronic pain

Antidepressants: MAOIs Side Effects

hypertensive crisis when taken with tyramine-containing foods (cheese, liver, beer, wine), photosensitivity

Antidepressants: MAOIs Nursing Considerations

Avoid foods containing tyramine
Monitor Output
Takes 4 wks to work
Do not take with cold medications or CNS stimulates

Antidepressants: SSRIs Med Names

Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft

Antidepressants: SSRIs Actions

inhibits CNS uptake of serotonin

Antidepressants: SSRIs Uses

depression, obsessive compulsive disorders, bulimia

Antidepressants: SSRIs Side Effects

Anxiety, gi upset, change in appetite and bowel function, urinary retention

Antidepressants: SSRIs Nursing Considerations

suicide precautions
takes 4 weeks to fully work
take in am
turn urine pink

Hypertensive Crisis

Severe Headache
Palpitations
Diaphoretic
Stiff Neck

Antidepressants: Tricyclics Med Names

Elavil, Tofranil, Norpamin

Antidepressants: Tricyclics Actions

inhibits reuptake of neurotransmitters

Antidepressants: Tricyclics Uses

depression, sleep apnea

Antidepressants: Tricyclics Side Effects

sedation, anticholinergic effect, confusion, postural hypotension, urinary retention

Antidepressants: Tricyclics Nursing Considerations

Monitor for suicide
takes 2-6 weeks to work
take at bedtime
monitor vital signs
position slowly
wean off medication
no alcohol
no sun- use sunscreen

Antidepressants: Heterocyclics Med Names

Wellbutrin, Desyrel

Antidepressants: Heterocyclics Uses

depression and smoking cessation

Antidepressants: Heterocyclics Side Effects

Wellbutrin: agitation
Desyrel: sedation

Antidepressants: Heterocyclics Nursing Considerations

avoid alcohol
CNS depressants
wean off slowly

Insulin: Fast Acting Names

Regular - can be given IV or Pump
Humulin R

Insulin: Fast Acting Onset

.5-1h

Insulin: Fast Acting Peak

2-4h

Insulin: Fast Acting Duration

6-8h

Insulin: Intermediate Acting Names

NPH
Humulin N

Insulin: Intermediate Acting Onset

2h

Insulin: Intermediate Acting Peak

6-12h

Insulin: Intermediate Acting Duration

18-26h

Insulin: Slow Acting Names

Ultralente
Humulin U

Insulin: Slow Acting Onset

4h

Insulin: Slow Acting Peak

8-20h

Insulin: Slow Acting Duration

24-36h

Insulin: Combination Names

Humulin 70/30

Insulin: Combination Onset

.5h

Insulin: Combination Peak

2-12h

Insulin: Combination Duration

24h

Antidiabetic Agents: Med Names

Diabinese, Orinase, Dymelor, Micronase

Antidiabetic Agents: Actions

Stimulates insulin release from beta cells in pancreas

Antidiabetic Agents: Uses

Type 2 diabetes

Antidiabetic Agents: Side Effects

Hypoglycemia, allergic skin reactions, GI upset

Antidiabetic Agents: Nursing Considerations

take before breakfast
Monitor glucose levels
avoid alcohol

Hypoglycemic Agent: Med Name

GlacGen (glucagon)

Hypoglycemic Agent: Action

stimulates liver to change glycogen to glucose

Hypoglycemic Agent: Uses

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemic Agent: Side Effects

hypotension, bronchospasms