What are the three general regions of the ear?
Inner, Middle, & External
The pinna of the ear consists of what two main parts?
Auricle & Lobule
The ear is what kind of receptor?
The ear performs two major sensory functions. What are they?
Hearing & Balance
What structure separates the external ear from the middle ear?
Name the three ear ossicles.
Malleus, Incus, & Stapes
From the following choices, select the function of the cochlea. (Static balance / Taste / Hearing / Dynamic balance)
What area is found between the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani?
What is the name of the nerve that takes information about balance and hearing to the brain?
What units are used to measure sound energy?
What part of the inner ear is involved in perceiving static balance?
Name the parts of the ear that might be impaired if a person demonstrates conduction deafness.
Tympanic membrane or the ear ossicles
What two diagnostic tests are used to determine conduction deafness?
Wever test & Rinne test
What is the name of the tube that runs from the auricle to the tympanic membrane?
The auditory tube connects what two cavities?
Tympanic cavity to the nasopharynx
What tube is responsible for the equalization of pressure when you change elevation?
What is the name of the space that encloses the ear ossicles?
Place the ear ossicles in sequence from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.
Malleus, Incus, & Stapes
Name all the parts of the inner ear.
Cochlea, Vestibule, & Semicircular canals
Background noise affects hearing tests. In the ticking watch test or audiometer test, what kind of result, in terms of auditory sensitivity, would you have recorded if moderate background noise were present?
The subject would not have been able to perceive the ticking sound as easily; therefore the test would indicate more hearing loss than actual.
In the Weber test, the ear that perceives the sound as being louder is the deaf ear. Why is this the case?
Conduction deafness leads to an increased sensitivity of the cochlear apparatus which picks up sound from vibration through the skull bones. Vibrations pass through the skull to temporal bone. The hearing impaired ear would be more sensitive to this perception of sound than an ear where sound is transmitted through the tympanic membrane.
"Eye shine" in nocturnal mammals is different from the "red eye" seen in some flash photographs. Eye shine is the reflection of light off the tapetum lucidum. What visual mechanism might explain red eye?
Due to the bright light reflecting off the back of the retina
Since the lens is made of protein, what effect might the preserving fluid used in lab have on the structure of the lens? How might this affect the clarity?
The normally clear lens is denatured and becomes opaque due to the preserving fluid. The protein molecules unwind as they denature and this leads to refraction of light.
What is the consensual reflex of the pupil?
Increase or decrease of one pupil when the other pupil is exposed to a respective decrease or increase in light.
How does vitreous humor differ from aqueous humor in terms of location and viscosity?
Vitreous humor is located in the posterior cavity and is more viscous (thicker) than aqueous humor. Aqueous humor is located in the anterior cavity and is more watery.
What layer of the eye converts visible light into nerve impulses?
What nerve takes the impulse of sight to the brain?
What is another name for the sclera?
White of the eye
How would you define an extrinsic muscle of the eye?
Attaches to the sclera and moves the eyeball
What gland produces tears?
What is the name of the transparent layer of the eye in front of the anterior chamber?
The iris of the eye has what function?
Central size of pupil
Where is vitreous humor located?
What is the middle layer of the eye called?
Is the lens anterior or posterior to the iris?
Which retinal cells are responsible for vision in dim light?
How would you define the near point of the eye?
Minimum focusing distance of eye
What do the numbers 20/100 mean for visual acuity?
A person with this vision can see at 20 feet what an average sighted person can see at 100 feet.
What is astigmatism?
Defect in cornea or lens that causes an uneven bending of the light rays in that area of the eye
In what area of the eye is the blind spot located?
Why does material have to be in solution for it to be sensed as taste?
Allows the fluid to run down the sides of papilla
What are the primary tastes?
What nerves transmit the sense of smell to the brain?
What nerves transmit the sense of taste to the brain?
Facial & Glossopharyngeal nerves
Where are the taste buds located?
Sides of tongue papillae
What is the exact region of the nasal cavity that is sensitive to smell stimuli?
What is the adaptation for having taste buds that determine unpleasant bitter compounds in many plant species?
Bitter compounds frequently are poisons in plants
Some people with severe sinus infections can lose their sense of smell. How can an infection that spreads from the frontal or maxillary sinus impair the sense of smell? What structure or structures might be affected?
Spread to the ethmoid bone which houses the olfactory nerves. If these nerves were damaged severely, the sense of smell could be permanently affected.
Material must be in solution for it to be tasted. What process would be used (olfaction or gustation) to perceive a lipid-based food?
Olfaction; there are five sensations of taste which are sensitive to water-soluble materials. Lipid-based materials such as mint oil, and garlic oil are sensed by smell.
How does a cold (rhinovirus) influence our perception of taste?
A cold increases the mucus production in the upper nasal cavity where the olfactory epithelium is located. The increase in mucus reduces the amount of material that comes into contact with the epithelium thus reducing the sense of smell.
Does adaptation to one smell influence adaptation to another smell
Some smells that we perceive as two separate smells are actually identical. What other cues do we use to distinguish between these two smells?
In the spinal cord, what type of impulse (sensory/motor) travels through the: (anterior gray horn? posterior gray horn? ascending spinal tracts? descending spinal tracts?)
Anterior gray horn: motor
Posterior gray horn: sensory
Ascending spinal tracts: sensory
Descending spinal tracts: motor
Descending spinal tracts: motor
What causes the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord?
Increased neural information coming from and going to the upper extremities
Where is the filum terminale located?
Attaching the inferior portion of the spinal cord to the coccyx
What is the conus medullaris?
The terminal portion of the solid part of the spinal cord; found at L1 or L2
What is the cauda equina?
Parallel cluster of nerve fibers that continue from the conus medullaris into the spinal cord
In the spinal cord, which is deep to the other, the white matter or the gray matter?
Gray matter is deep to white matter
What is the area of gray matter that is found between the lateral halves of the spinal cord?
The subarachnoid space is filled with what fluid?
What major nerves arise from the following plexuses? (Cervical / Brachial / Lumbar / Sacral)
Brachial: axillary, musculocutaneous, median, radial, and ulnar
Lumbar: femoral and obturator
In terms of function, how does the dorsal spinal root vary from the ventral spinal root?
The dorsal spinal root carries sensory impulses to the spinal cord and the ventral spinal root carries motor impulses from the spinal cord.
What is the endoneurium?
The connective tissue sheath that wraps around the individual nerve fiber.
How do tracts differ from nerves?
Tracts are parallel nerve fibers in the CNS, while nerves are parallel nerve fibers in the PNS
What is a mixed nerve?
One that carries both sensory and motor information
The diaphragm's contractions are regulated by what nerve?
The muscles of the arm, such as the biceps brachii, have what innervation?
Innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve
The extensor muscles of the hand are controlled by what nerve?
The sciatic nerve is composed of two nerves. What are they?
Tibial nerve & Common fibular nerve
Which one of the meninges is just superficial to the brain?
What fluid is found in the ventricles of the brain?
CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid)
Into what space does fluid flow from the cerebral aqueduct?
What is the difference between a gyrus and a sulcus?
Gyrus: ridges of the convolutions / Sulcus: depressions of the convolutions
Name all the lobes of the cerebrum.
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, & Temporal lobes
What is the function of the precentral gyrus?
Directs part of the body to move
What sense does the temporal lobe alone interpret?
What physical depression separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe?
What structure connects the cerebral hemispheres?
Name the major regions of the midbrain.
Corpora quadrigemina, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, substantia nigra, cerebral peduncles, cerebral aqueduct, and tectum
What is the function of the cerebellum?
The cerebellum is a location primarily noted for muscle coordination and maintenance of posture.
John "pulled a no-brainer" by hitting his forehead against a wall. What damage might he have done to the function of his brain, particularly the functions associated with the frontal lobe?
Broca's area and precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex) may have been damaged.
If a stroke had affected all the sensations interpreted by the brain concerning only the face and the hands, how much of the post-central gurus would be affected?
Describe what effect the loss of an entire cerebral hemisphere would have on specific functions, such as spatial awareness or the ability to speak.
The motor speech area is normally only found on the left side of the brain. Damage to this area would cause lasting speech impairment in that thoughts cannot be articulated as fluent speech.
Aphasia is loss of speech. Different types of aphasia can occur. If Broca's area were affected by a stroke, would the content of the spoken word be affected, or would the ability to pronounce the words be affected?
The ability to pronounce words would be affected.
Describe the following nerves in terms of function (sensory, motor, or both). (Optic / Trochlear nerve / Glossopharyngeal nerve / Hypoglossal nerve / Vagus nerve)
Optic nerve: sensory
Trochlear nerve: motor
Glossopharyngeal nerve: both
Hypoglossal nerve: motor
Vagus nerve: both
Name the cranial nerve that innervates each of the following areas. (Anterior tongue / Ear / Mandible / Retina of the eye / Stomach / Lateral rectus muscle of the eye)
Anterior tongue: facial
Retina of the eye: optic
Lateral rectus muscle of the eye: abducent
Describe the function of an astrocyte
Astrocytes nourish and provide a barrier between the nervous tissue and the blood.
Describe the function of an ependymal cell.
Ependymal cells serve as a barrier between cerebrospinal fluid and the nervous tissue.
Describe the function of an oligodendrocyte.
Produce myelin in the CNS.
The brain belongs to what division of the nervous system?
A spinal nerve belongs to what division of the nervous system
To what major division of the nervous system does the spinal cord belong?
Which division of the nervous system is dedicated to subconscious function?
ANS (Autonomic Nervous System)
What does CNS stand for?
Central Nervous System
What kind of cell has an axon, a dendrite, and a nerve cell body?
In what part of the neuron is the nucleus found?
Neuron cell body
What is another name for an efferent neuron?
If a neuron has a soma with a dendrite on one side and an axon on the other, what kind of neuron is it?
Two adjacent neurons communicate with one another across a space. What is this space called?
Association neurons (Interneurons)
How is neuroglia different from neurons in terms of function?
In which one of the three nervous system divisions are neurolemmocytes located?
Myelin is made of what kind of material?
What is the action of the serratus anterior muscle?
Name four muscles that extend the vertebral column.
Multifidus, spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis & semispinalis
How does the serratus anterior function as an antagonist to the rhomboideus muscles?
Serratus anterior: abducts scapula / Rhomboideus: adducts scapula
How does the action of the rectus abdominis differ from that of the other abdominal muss
Rectus abdominis: flexes the vertebral column and compresses the abdominal wall / Abdominal muscles: compress the abdominal wall
What is the physical relationship of the intercostal muscles to each other?
Internal intercostal is deep to the external intercostal
What two muscles, originating on the neck, have an action to extend the head?
Splenius and semispinalis
Extension and rotation of the vertebral column occur by what group of muscles?
What is the action of the intercostal muscles?
External intercostal: elevate ribs and inspiration / Internal intercostalis: depresses ribs and expiration
What muscle inserts on the central tendon?
What is the action of the quadratus lumborum?
Laterally flexes vertebral column and depresses rib 12
The tendinous intersections are found in what muscle?
Flexion of the vertebral column occurs by what abdominal muscle?
Which is the deepest abdominal muscle?
How do the abdominal muscles in the cat compare with those in the human in terms of relative position?
They are very similar. The external abdominal oblique is a broad, superficial muscle on the ventral abdomen.
What is the origin of the masseter muscle?
What is the action of the risorius?
Abducts corner of mouth
What kind of muscle is the orbicularis oculi or orbicularis oris muscle in terms of action?
What muscle originates on the temporal fossa?
Name two muscles that close the jaw.
Masseter & Temporalis
What muscle closes the lips?
Where does the sternocleidomastoid muscle insert?
Mastoid process & Superior nuchal line
Where does the orbicularis oculi insert?
Skin of eyelid
What is the insertion of the temporalis?
Coronoid process & Mandibular ramus
Name a muscle that closes the eye.
What is the action of the sternocleidomastoid?
One: rotates and extends neck; Both: flex neck
What muscle is a synergist with the masseter?
You were to ride a horse, what muscles would you use to keep your seat out of the saddle as you rode?
How do the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus prevent you from toppling over as you walk?
They help maintain our center of gravity
What is a muscle that is an antagonist to the biceps femoris muscle?
What are two muscles that are synergists with the biceps femoris muscle?
Semitendinosus & Semimembranosus
How does the action of the rectus femoris differ from that of the other quadriceps muscles?
Flexes the thigh
What is the insertion of all the muscles of the quadriceps group?
How many adductor muscles are there?
List two muscles in this exercise that are responsible for thigh flexion.
Iliopsoas, sartorius, and rectus femoris
Where do the hamstring muscles originate as a group?
What is the action of the vastus lateralis?
Which muscle group is located on the anterior part of the thigh?
Is abduction of the thigh movement away from or toward the midline?
Away from the midline
What muscle flexes the lumbar vertebrae as part of its action?
What is the origin of the gastrocnemius?
Condyle of femur
What is the insertion of the tibialis anterior in humans?
Metatarsal 1 & Cuneiform 1
How does the action of the fibularis longus in humans differ from that of the fibularis tertius?
Fibularis longus: plantar flexes foot; Fibularis tertius: dorsi flexes foot
What is the action of the extensor hallucis longus?
Extend hallux (the dorsi flexes foot and inverts foot)
The calf is made up of what two major muscles?
Soleus & Gastrocnemius
Plantar flexion occurs by what muscles?
Fibularis longus, fibularis brevis, soleus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus
What muscle extends the toes?
Extensor digitorum longus
Name a muscle in this exercise that dorsiflexes the foot.
Fibularis tertius, tibialis anterior
Plantar flexion and eversion of the foot occur by the action of what muscle?
Fibularis brevis & fibularis longus
What is the insertion of the soleus?
Calcaneus by the calcaneal tendon
What is the insertion of the fibularis tertius muscle?
Dorsum & Metatarsal 5
What is the insertion of the flexor digitorum longus?
Distal phalanges of digits 2-5
What is the action of the deltoid muscle?
Abducts the arm, flexes, extends medially and laterally, and rotates arm
Name the origin of the supraspinatus muscle
What is the insertion of the pectoralis minor?
Coracoid process of scapula
What is the origin of the levator scapulae
What is the insertion of the latissimus dorsi?
Intertubercular groove of humerus
What is the origin of the trapezius?
Occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, and spinous process of C7-T12
Does the biceps brachii muscle originate or insert on the humerus?
The pectoralis major has what action?
Flexes, adducts, and medially rotates arm
What is the insertion of the subscapularis?
Lesser tubercle of humerus
What is the action of the triceps brachii?
Extend and adduct arm, extend forearm
What is the origin of the brachialis?
Anterior, distal surface of humerus
Name all the muscles that flex the arm.
Deltoid, pectoralis major, biceps brachii, coracobrachialis
Which muscles are antagonists of the triceps brachii?
Bicep brachii & Brachialis
What is the origin of the flexor carpi ulnaris?
Medial epicondyle of humerus and ulna, olecranon fossa
What is an antagonist to the supinator muscle?
Pronator teres of pronator quadratus
Where does the flexor digitorum superficialis insert?
Middle phalanges of digits 2-5
What is the insertion of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle?
What muscle extends both the hand and the phalanges?
Flexor digitorum profundus
What is the action of the flexor carpi radialis muscles?
Flexes and abducts hand
What muscles flex the hand?
Palmaris longus, flexor carpi radialis and ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus, and flexor pollicis longus
What muscles extend the thumb
Extensor pollicis longus brevis
Are the extensor carpi muscles located on the anterior or posterior side of the forearm?
What are the three muscles that correspond to the single trapezius in humans?
Spinotrapezius, Acromiotrapezius, and Clavotrapezius
What is the action of the epitrochlearis?
Extends the forelimb
Which one of the following muscles does not correspond to a human muscle? (Deltoid / Pectoralis minor / Xiphihumeralis / Latissimus dorsi)
How does the deltoid of the cat differ from the deltoid of the human?
Cat deltoid: 3 muscles / Human deltoid: 1 muscle
Which muscle is more developed in cats; the flexor digitorum superficialis or the flexor digitorum profundus?
Flexor digitorum profundus
What role do nerves play in skeletal muscle contraction?
Skeletal muscle must be stimulated by a nerve in order to contract
What chemical crosses the synapse, causing a muscle to contract?
Where is calcium released to cause muscle contraction?
What are the two types of myofilaments found in muscle cells that cause muscle contraction?
Actin & Myosin
Does a single muscle fiber or an entire muscle contract by an all-or-none response?
Single muscle fiber
Name the first phase after a stimulus in a muscle contraction.
Define subthreshold stimulus.
A stimulus that doesn't produce a response in the muscle
What happens to the strength of contraction during wave summation?
It's more pronounced; increases
Continuous smooth contraction of muscle brought about by rapid sequential stimuli
What is maximum recruitment?
The point at which the increase in voltage does not lead to an increase in contraction strength
How do tetanus and twitch, as demonstrated in the lab, correlate to human muscle contraction? Which one is more reflective of human muscle response? Why?
Human muscles do not normally respond by singular contraction as seen in twitches. Tetanus is more reflective of normal human muscular response.
Explain a muscle spasm in terms of recruitment of muscle fibers.
A muscle spasm is the spontaneous recruitment of numerous muscle fibers. The spasmodic contraction of muscle fibers causes the painful contraction.
How does your favored arm compare with your weak arm in terms of electrical activity?
Your favored arm should show greater electrical activity
How does the muscle respond to weight when it is first contracting versus when it is fatigued?
The muscle shows smoother contraction when first contracting. When the muscle is fatigued the contractions become more spasmodic.